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Chapters 2-4 (pages 25-74) : their Notes (pages 386-399} : 
Appendix V "Toponymy" (pages 137-246), 
and full Bibliography (pages 247-303). 





Eor more than half a century since its publication in 1908, Nicholas 
Adontz's monumental thesis on Armenia in the Period of Justinian 
has proved to he both a landmark and a guidepost in the field of 
Armenian studies although its general inaccessibility, either from the 
rarity of procurable copies, or from linguistic difficulties, has made 
of it far too often a semi-legendary document rather than a useful 
tool. Perhaps as the result of this fortuitous isolation as well as of 
external circumstances, Adontz's first and probably greatest work 
did not lead to an immediate proliferation of studies along the lines 
that he had traced. He, himself, was to develop a number of them 
in later works such as his articles on the Armenian Primary History, 
Mesrop Mast'oe, Koriwn, P'awstos Buzand, and Movses Xorenaci; 
on the date of the Christianization of Armenia ; on the Iranian aspects 
of Armenian society ; and, as late as his postumously published History, 
on pre-Achaemenid Armenia 1 , But it is only relatively recently 
that the works of such distinguished contemporary armenologists 
as Gerard Garitte, Cyril Toumanoff, and the late Hakob Manandian 
have developed a number of problems in mediaeval Armenian history 
significantly beyond the point reached by Adontz at the turn of the 
century, and these scholars have not failed to acknowledge their 
indebtedness even where they have outstripped him s . Not even a 
Marxist presentation which of necessity challenged many of Adontz's 
premises and interpretations prevented A.G, SuMasian from admitting 
that " „. the admirable work of N, Adontz ... remains to this day one 
of the most authoritative works on Armenian feudalism" 3 . Such 
tributes are all the more impressive if we remember that they are 
addressed to the first major work of a young scholar composed at a 
time when a number of crucial studies on Late-Koman, Byzantine, 
and Iranian history as well as on the historical geography of eastern 
Anatolia were still to be written, 

The scope of Adontz's encyclopaedic work is not conveyed adequately 
by even a full quotation of his title, since, far from restricting himself 
to the reign of Justinian, or to an investigation of the nayarar system, 
he went on to scrutinize nearly every aspect of ancient and mediaeval 

1 A bibliography of Adontz's works can be found in the commemorative article in 
BA, LXI (May, 1947), pp. 313-318, and in A1PHO, IV (1936), pp. 991-993. 

2 JSr,gr,, Toumanoff, Studies, p. 108, See also helow n. 4. 

3 Sukiasian, Armenia, p. 36, Also Yuzbasyan's recent article in PBS (1962), 



Armenia — geographical, political, religions, administrative, social, 
and intellectual — while giving simultaneously an extensive analysis 
of all the available sources. Perhaps the clearest index of the breadth 
of Adontz's information is the all too clear incompetence of a single 
individual to edit his work ; a team of specialists — historians, geo- 
graphers, archaeologists, philologists, anthropologists, and ethno- 
graphers — would have been necessary to do it justice. 

The value of Adontz's work for a new generation of scholars is not, 
however, limited to being a source of rare information to be exploited 
for reference; his methods and insights into the crucial problems of 
early Armenian history may yet prove more useful than even the 
enormous material accumulated by him. His application of critical 
scholarly methods to Armenian studies, and particularly his recognition 
of the dangers inherent in purely literary sources, have led to consid- 
erable work on the re-evaluation and re-dating of many Armenian 
historical documents, a task in which he continued to participate 
energetically, and which is by no means completed. His simulta- 
neous use of the techniques of varied disciplines while stressing the 
maintenance of the historian's rigorous chronological criterion, and 
his comparative method of juxtaposing the information of all relevant 
sources, Classical, Armenian, and Oriental, provided a workable 
blueprint for attacking the difficulties characterizing Armenian 
historiography. His ground breaking qualitative and quantitative 
analyses of Armenian social structure, reaching beyond superficial 
generalities, provided us with some of the first detailed information 
and with a framework for further research. 

Particularly illuminating is Adontz's constant refusal to be led 
astray by the conscious or implicit assumptions of his sources that 
ancient Armenia was a simple, undifferentiated, and unchanging 
entity, rather than the complicated aggregation of varied components 
whose geographic, political, and even religious particularism must 
be recognized even in periods of seeming unification, and whose 
characteristics and interests must be accounted for and balanced 
anew in each successive period. On numerous occasions Adontz's 
hypotheses have required development or rectification, but his basic 
conclusions repeatedly reached beyond the theses then current to 
what would prove to be the crux of a problem : beyond the familiar 
division of Armenia between the Graeco-Eoman and Iranian worlds 
to the paramount importance of the elaborate nexus of family traditions 



and loyalities, " dynastic " as well as " feudal ", as shown in Ton- 
manoff's recent Studies ; beyond the double strain of Armenian Chris- 
tianity, Syriac as well as Hellenic, to the relationship of the ecclesi- 
astical hierarchy to the nayamr structure, and its influence on the 
pohtical evolution of the country, as I hope to demonstrate in a 
forthcoming work. Professor Garitte already observed the value of 
Adontz's inspired guesses when his own publication of the new Greek 
version of the Life of Si. Gregory repeatedly vindicated Adontz's 
hypothetical corrections of Marr's readings in the Arabic version 4 , 

It is self evident that a book written more than sixty years ago 
should now be superseded in a number of instances: Armenian 
archaeology was all but non-existent at the time, so that the Urartian 
aspects of Armenian history were perforce ignored, though Adontz 
himself rectified a considerable part of this lacuna in his Hisioire 
d'Amtenie ; new epigraphic material both in Armenia and in Iran has 
added significantly to our knowledge of both countries, and new 
editions of Iranian texts have altered a number of etymological 
derivations ; the Erwandian-Orontid dynasty identified by Manandian 5 
has altered radically our knowledge of the Hellenistic period; the 
lengthy survey of Diocletian's administrative reforms while perhaps 
still useful to Adontz's Russian contemporaries, now seems superfluous ; 
and a number of his conclusions as to the « feudal » nature of the 
Armenian naxarar system rest on antiquated interpretations of 
European feu-dalism. 

The entire book bears the marks of hasty publication, whether in 
the more superficial details of faulty proofreading, insufficient and 
often exasperatingly inadequate references, as well as the absence 
of the indispensable map, whose omission was regretted by the author, 
or in the far more fundamental aspects of occasionally confused, 
repetitive and contradictory organization, dubious etymologies, 
overstatements, and premature conclusions. The involutions of 
Adontz's style in a language not native to him add nothing to the 
clarity of the presentation. 

Yet Adontz himself anticipated much of the criticism which must 
attend a pioneer venture by disclaiming any pretension to a definitive 
study. " ... in publishing this work we are very far from any illusion 
as to its perfection, Armenian philology is still at a stage where the 

4 Garitte, AgatJwnge, pp. 351-353, 

5 See belmv Chapter XIV, n, 1. 



presentation of any interpretation or theory as unchallengeable correct 
is out of the question. Students of Armenian antiquity can only 
grope their way toward many historical problems by way of more or 
less successful hypotheses; some of these may be corroborated at a 
later date, others will fall by the way, .,. . Our clarification of the 
nayarar system should bring a ray of light into the darkness which 
hangs oyer the Armenian past ... and should prove a starting point 
for a scholarly analysis of the extensive subsequent period of Armenian 
history ... " 6 , On these terms, the value of his work has di m inished 
but little in the intervening half-century, notwithstanding the necessary 
alterations, It remains a mine of information for the specialist, and 
a source of seminal ideas for those re-interpretations and further 
investigations the author had requested. As such it is a fitting 
reminder that in every generation it behoves dwarfs to take advantage 
of the shoulders of the giants who have preceded them. 

The instinct of every translator running the ominous gauntlet 
between the Charybdis of inaccuracy and the Scylla of unreadabihty 
is to open with his own apologia. This temptation is all the stronger 
in the case of Armenia in the Period of Justinian, since, as I have 
already indicated, Kussian was not Adontz's native language, Unlike 
Armenian, which has three steps in the demonstrative-relative system 
(hie, isie, ille), Kussian shares with most European languages a two 
step system. As a consequence of Adontz's shift from the one to 
the other, his writing abounds with cases of ambiguous antecedents, 
not all of which can readily be resolved from the context. His 
complicated and often awkward sentence structure is particularly 
foreign to English usage; the paragraphing is often erratic. Never- 
theless the text has been consistently respected, and alterations held 
down to a minimum even where some awkwardness ensued, Aside 
from the introduction of occasional elucidations such as " Xosrov II 
of Armenia " for " Xosrov ", the subdivision of unmanageable sen- 
tences, the clarification of antecedents, and the correction of minor 
misprints, no liberties have been taken with the original. 

The only significant difference between this edition and the Russian 
one lies in the realm of quotations from primary sources, Following 
the fashion of the day, Adontz often gave lengthy paraphrases rather 

6 Introduction pp. 6 and Chapter XV, p, 371. 



than direct quotations. In several instances where this method 
seemed awkward or unnecessary, the original quotation has been 
ie~introduced, each case being duly recorded in the notes. To facilitate 
the reading, all extensive quotations in foreign languages have been 
shifted from the text to the notes and replaced by their English 
translations. Since so much of the value of Adontz's work lies in 
his vast collection of sources, many of which still remain extremely 
scarce even for the specialist, it has seemed useful to include in the 
notes the texts of a number of passages to which Adontz merely 
referred, all such additions being set off by square brackets. Further- 
more, a series of Appendices containing in extenso, or in their relevant 
portions, the main documents, Classical and Armenian, used by 
Adontz, has been added to this edition to allow the reader to draw 
his own conclusions from the material. 

In many instances the editions used by Adontz were either super- 
seded or, in the case of some Armenian documents, unobtainable; 
these have been replaced by more recent or accessible ones. All such 
substitutions have been noted in the Bibliography. Similarly, the 
English versions of Classical sources found in the Loeb Classical Library 
have been used wherever possible for the sake of convenience, but 
any significant differences between their translations and the ones 
given by Adontz have been recorded. Additional notes by the editor 
are indicated by letters as well as numbers eg. la, 

A full scale re-edition of Adontz's book to bring its manifold aspects 
in line with their modern scholarship would have entailed a major 
re- writing of the book, and would consequently lie well beyond the 
scope of this edition and the competence of its editor, Consequently 
it has seemed best to leave Adontz's text substantially as he composed 
it, adding only, wherever possible, some indication in the notes as 
to the agreement or disagreement of subsequent investigators, new 
material, need for rectification, or corroborative evidence. The new 
Bibliographical Note attempts to provide some, albeit cursory, indica- 
tion of the relevant works published since 1908. Finally, it is hoped 
that the Bibliography, which follows Adontz's lead in reaching beyond 
the limits of Justinianic Armenia to include a number of problems 
implicit or explicit in his text, will provide still more comparative 
material and criteria for a further re- evaluation of some of his conclu- 

All those who have had the occasion to experience it will Teadily 



recognize the eternal nightmare of inconsistency in transliteration, 
especially in the case of proper names which haye reached us in multiple 
versions. In the kaleidoscopic world of eastern Asia Minor is a locality 
to be identified by its Classical, Armenian, Persian, Syriac, Arabic, 
or Turkish name? Which is the preferable transliteration system 
to be used for the name of an author writing both in Armenian and in 
Russian ? The most that this edition can hope to claim is an attempt 
to bring a little order into what can only be called Adontz's systematic 
inconsistency. Wherever possible, Armenian terms have been given 
according to the prevailing Hlibschmann-Meillet system, Arabic ones 
according to the spelling of the Encyclopedia of Islam, the Persian 
ones according to Christensen's IS Iran sous les Sassanides, 2nd edition 
(Copenhagen, 1944) with minor alterations, Russian ones according to 
the system of the U.S. Library of Congress, Georgian ones according 
to Toumanoff's Studies in Christian Caucasian History (Georgetown, 
1963), and Turkish toponyms according to the Office of Geography, 
.Department of the Interior, Gazetteer No, 46: Turkey (Washington, 
1960), For the sake of convenience, author's names have been given 
a single form, e,g, Manandian, irrespective of the alterations required 
by the diverse languages in which they wrote, the form selected being 
wherever possible the one more generally familiar, In all cases of 
ambiguity alternate versions have been given, Por Armenian topo- 
nyms, the Armenian form has generally been preferred for localities 
in Persarmenia, and the Classical (preferably Greek rather than Latin) 
for the western section of the country which was part of the Eastern 
Roman Empire, except in the case of familiar names where such a 
procedure would entail unwarranted pedantry, Por all the occasions 
on which these guide lines have failed, as they needs must, I can only 
appeal to the sympathetic indulgence of my colleagues. 

The precious geographical sections of the book carry their own 
particular series of problems. The map envisaged by Adonta was 
never published, and nearly every locality in eastern Anatolia has 
experienced at least one name change since 1908. Consequently 
Kiepert's and Lyneh's maps to which Adont^ normally refers are of 
but limited value to the modern reader, since no concordance of 
earlier and contemporary names exists to my knowledge. The 
identification of many ancient sites remains controversial in spite 
of the extensive investigations of Markwart, Honigmann, Eremyan, 
and many others. In Appendix Y some attempt has been made to 




coordinate the information on toponyms, giving where relevant and 
possible their ancient Classical and/or Armenian name, the modern 
equivalent, the coordinates given in the TJ.S, Office of Geography, 
Gazetteer No, 46 ', and a reference to the appropriate sheet of the USAF 
Aeronautical Approach Chart (St, Louis, 1956-1958) and the Turkish 
General Map, Where this has proved impossible, the available 
information will be found in the relevant notes. 

Finally, I should Eke to express my thanks to my friends and 
colleagues, professors Seeger Bonebakker, Associate Professor of 
Arabic Studies, Tibor Halasi-Ktm, Professor of Turkic Studies, Karl 
H. Menges, Professor of Altaic Philology, and Ehsan Yar-Shater, 
Hagop Kevorkian Professor of Iranian Studies, all of Columbia Uni~ 
versity, as well as professors Gerard E, Caspary, Associate Professor 
of Mediaeval History at Smith College, Wendell S, Johnson, Associate 
Professor of English Literature at the University of the City of New 
York, and Norma A, Phillips, Assistant Professor of English Literature 
at Queens College of the City of New York, for their help and patience 
on the many occasions when I was forced to turn to them for assistance, 
I am most grateful to Professor Emeritus Sirarpie der Nersessian of 
the Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, both for her 
suggestion that I undertake this edition and for the help and encou- 
ragement she has so often given me, To my constant advantage, 
I have also benefited from the vast knowledge and inexhaustible 
kindness of Monsieur Haig Berberian of the Revue des Etudes Arrn§- 
niennes. Finally, my thanks are also due to Dr, Robert Hewsen for 
his help with questions of Armenian geography, and to my students 
Dr, Linda Eose, Messers, Krikor Maksoudian and Jack Yartoogian 
for the endless hours they spent in the thankless tasks of verifying 
references, hunting out copies of rare works, and proofreading, Eor 
the many flaws which such an edition must perforce still contain, the 
responsibility remains of course mine alone. 

Nina G, Gaesoiast, 

New York, July 3, 1967, 


AASS Ada Sanctorum Bollandiana (Brussels). 

AAWB Ablmndlungen der Ahademie der Wissenschaflen zu Berlin, 

AB Analecta Bollandiana (Brussels). 

ABAWM Ablmndlungen der bayerischen Ahademie der Wissenschaflen zu Munchen, 

AGO Ada Conciliorum Oecumenicorum, Schwartz, E, ed, (Berlin, 1914). 

AEHE Annuaire de VScoh des Hautes Etudes (Paris). 

AIPHO Annuaire de VInstiiiit de philologie el d'histoire orientales et slaves (Brussels). 

AJSLL American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Chicago). 

AKGWG Ablmndlungen der honiglischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaflen zu Gbttingen. 

AO Ada Orientalia (Copenhagen). 

AQ Armenian Quarterly (New York). 

AE.BBL Academie Boyale de Belgique, Bulletin Classe des Lettres (Brussels). 

ASGW Ablmndlungen der sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaflen, 

B Byzantion (Brussels), 

BA Bulletin armenologique, Melanges de VUniversite de Saint-Joseph (Beirut). 

Ber Berytus (Beirut). 

BGA Bibliotheca geographorum arabicorum, de Goeje, M.J, ed, (Leiden), 

BIM Bulletin de VlnstUui Marr (Tbilisi), 

BK Bedi Karthlisa* Revue de Karthvelologie (Paris). 

BM Banber Matenadarani (Erevan). 

BNJ Byzaniinisch-neugriechische Jahrbucher (Berlin). 

BSL Bulletin de la Socieii Linguistigue de Paris, 

BSOAS Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (London). 

BZ Byzantinische Zeitschrift (Leipzig), 

Ca Caucasica (Leipzig). 

CAH Cambridge Ancient History, 

CHA Collection d'historiens armeniens, Brosset, M.P. ed. (St, Petersburg, 1874- 


CHAMA Collection d'Mstoriens anciens et modernes de VArminie, Langlois, Y. ed, 

(Paris, 1967-1869), 

CHK The Catholic Historical Meview (Washington), 

CIG Corpus Inscriptionum Graecorum. 

CIL Corpus Inscriptionum Latinomm. 

CJC Corpus Juris Civilis, Mommsen, T,, Kxuger, P., et al., edd, (Berlin). 

CMH Cambridge Medieval History, 

Cod. Th. Codex Theodosianus, Mommsen, T., et al,, edd. (Berlin). 

CP Classical Philology (Chicago). 

CR Classical Beview (London- Oxford), 

CSCO Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium (Louvain), 

CSHB Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae (Bonn, 1828-1897). 

DHG Didionnaire d^Histoire et de GiograpMe JScclesiastique (Paris). 



DTC Dictionnaire de TMologie Oaiholique (Paris). 

EHR English Historical Beview (London). 

EI- Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden, 1913-1948). New edition (1 954-), 

EO Echos d'Orient (Paris). 

EGH Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, Muller, C. ed. (Paris, 1841-1883). 

G Georgica (London). 

G46 Office of Geography, Department of the Interior, Gazetteer No. 46 : Turkey 
(Washington, 1960). 

GGM Geographi Graeci Minores, Mutter, C. ed. (Paris, 1855-1861), 

HA Handes Amsorya (Vienna). 

IAFAN Izvestia Armianshogo Piliala Akademii Nauk SSSB (Erevan). 

IAN A Izvestiia AJcademii Nauk Armianskol SSB (Erevan). 

IANS Izvestiia Akademii Nauk SSSB (Moscow), 

IKIAI Izvestiia Kavkazskogo Istoriko-Arkheologicheskogo Instituta (Tbilisi). 

IZ Istoricheskie Zapiski (Moscow). 

JA Journal Asiatique (Paris). 

JEH The Journal of Ecclesiastical History (London). 

JHS Journal of Hellenic Studies (London), 

JKAS Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain (London), 

JR.GS Journal of the Boyal Geographic Society (London). 

JKS Journal of Boman Studies (London). 

K. Klio. Beitrdge zur alten Geschichie (Leipzig), 

KSINA Kratkie Soobshcheniie Instituta Narodov Azii Akademii Nauk SSSB (Mos- 

KV KhristianskU Vostoh 

L Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, Mass.-London). 

LTK Lexikon fur Theologie und Kirche (Freiburg i/B), 

Mansi Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Gollectio, Migne, J.B. ed. (Floren- 
ce - Venice, 1759-1798). New edition (Paris, 1901). 

MAIP Memoires de VAcademie Impiriah des Sciences de St, Piiersbourg. 

MBAK Monatsberichte der berlinischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 

MDGKO Morgenlandische Darstellung aus Geschichie und Kultur des Ostens (Berlin). 

MVG Mitteilungen der vorderasiaiischen Gesellschaft. 

NT Nord Tidsskrifi for Sprogviden (Oslo), 

OC Oriens Chrisiianus (Leipzig). 

OS Orientalia Suecana (Uppsala). 

P Pazmaveb (Venice). 

PBA Proceedings of the British Academy (London). 

PBH Patma-banasirakan Handes (Erevan). 

PG Patrologiae cursus completus. Series graeco-Iatinu, Migne, J.P. ed. (Paris, 

PL Patrologiae cursus completus. Series laiina, Migne, J.P. ed. (Paris, 1844- 

PO Patrologia Orientalise Graff in, K, and Nau, !F, edd. (Paris, 1903). 

PP La Parola del Passaio, Bivista di Studi Classid (Naples). 

PS Palestinskil Sbornik (Moscow). 

PW BeaVencyclopadie der classischen Aliertumsurissenschaft, Pauly, A., Wisso- 



wa, G., and Kroll, W. edd, (Vienna, 1837-1852). New edition (Stuttgart, 

REA Bevue des Etudes Arminiennes (Paris, 1920-1932). New series (Paris, 

REAnc Bevue des Etudes Anciennes (Bordeaux). 
REB Bevue des Etudes Byzantines (Paris), 

REIE Bevue des JJJtudes Indo-JSuropeennes. 

RH Bevue Historique (Paris). 

RHE Bevue d'JBistoire Ecclesiastique (Lou vain). 

RHR Bevue de VHisioire des Beligions (Paris), 

ROC Bevue de VOrient Chretien (Paris), 

RSJB Becueils de la Societi Jean Bodin (Paris). 

S Syria (Paris). 

SAW Sitzungsberichie der philologisch-historische Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie 

der Wissenschaften (Vienna). 
SBAWM Sitzungsberichte der bayerischen Ahademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen, 
SI A Studia Instituti Anthropos (Vienna). 

SMM SaFarfvelos Muzeume Moambe (Tbilisi), 

SV Sovetshoe Vostokovedenie (Moscow). 

T Traditio (New York), 

USAEM USAF Aeronautical Approach Chart (St. Louis, 1956-1958). 
UZL Uchennye Zapiski Leningradskogo Universiteta. 

VBAG Verhandlungen der berlinischen anthropohgischen Qesellschafi* 

VDI Vestnik Drevnel Istorii (Moscow). 

VI Voprosy Istorii (Moscow). 

VIA Voprosy lazykoznaniia (Moscow), 

W Vizantilskil Vremmenik (St. Petersburg, 1894-1928). N.S, (Leningrad, 

WZKM Wiener Zeitschrift filr die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 
ZDMG Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft (Leipzig). 

ZE Zeitschrift fur Mthnologie, 

ZKO Zapishi Klassicheskago Otdeleniia Imperatorskago Busskago Arkheologi- 

cheskago Obshchestva (St. Petersburg). 
ZMNP Zhurnal Ministerstva Narodnago Prosveshcheniia (St. Petersburg). 

ZNW Zeitschrift fur neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, 

ZVO Zapiski Vostochnago Otdeleniia Imperatorskago Busskago Arkheologicheskago 

Obshchestva (St. Petersburg). 
ZVS Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. 




The composition of the autonomous principalities — Their order, with a genetic 
sketch — Asthianene and Balabitene — Sophene, in the broader sense — Anzitene- 
Covk', Xarberd, Asmusat, and Anzita — Anzitene as part of Sophene — The division 
of Sophene: Greater, and Sahunian Sophene — Angelene as part of Greater Sophene 
— The origin of the autonomous Satrapies — The addition of Asthianene and Bala- 
bitene to the Satrapies in A.D, 387, 

Western Armenia was neither politically nor culturally a homo- 
geneous unit. This situation was primarily a consequence of the 
fact that she had not entered into the complex of the Empire at one 
time, but rather piecemeal, at different times and on different terms. 
From the Imperial point of view, three territorial units were distinguish- 
ed according to the degree of their submission to the authority of 
the Emperor: the autonomous principalities, Satrapiae; Interior 
Armenia, Armenia Interior; and Lesser Armenia, Armenia Minor, 

The trans-Euphratine [west bank] Armenian lands were known as 
Armenia Minor, and they had been incorporated into the Roman 
Empire very early, still at the dawn of their political life so to speak. 
The lands stretching from the Euphrates [east bank], on the other 
hand, formed Greater Armenia and were the possessions of the Ar- 
menian Arsacids, The struggle between Rome and Persia was carried 
on over Greater Armenia exclusively, since Roman power in Lesser 
Armenia had been thoroughly established before the appearance of 
the Arsacids. 

The Arsacid possessions in Greater Armenia were the subject of 
the quarrel and partition of 387. Some of the provinces which entered 
into the Roman part at the time of this partition were even considered 
to have become part of it from the downfall of Arsak [Arsaces] II 
in 374. They formed a small group of autonomous principalities 
under the eventual protection of the Emperor, which successfully 



preserved their privileged position until the time of Justinian, These 
principalities were known as the autonomous Satrapies, or, more 
commonly, as the nations (Wvt), gentes). The other provinces which 
likewise entered into the territorial complex of Greater Armenia, but 
went over to the Empire under the terms of the partition of 387, 
continued to be called Greater Armenia by the Eomans as pars pro 
totOy while the major part of former Greater Armenia, i.e. the part 
remaining in the hands of the Persians was known in the Empire as 
Persarmenia. Since the official name of Koman Greater Armenia 
seems to have been Armenia Interior, we will refer to it in this fashion, 
leaving its broader modern meaning to the term Greater Armenia, 

^C J^ ^ 

The autonomous principalities, or Satrapies, as they were called, 
lay in southern Armenia between the Tigris and the Euphrates. To 
differentiate them from Greater (Interior) Armenia, Procopius refers 
to them as " the Other Armenia ", 

Such were the dispositions ... made for Greater Armenia 
as it is called, but in the Other Armenia, which extends inside 
of the Euphrates river as far as the city of Amida, five Armenian 
satraps held the power *. 

The same principalities are called gentes and Wvr}, as opposed to 
Armenia Magna or Armenia Interior, in documents promulgated 
by Justinian himself, and they are listed by name: 

Magnam Armeniam, quae Interior dicebatur et gentes: 
Anzetenam vieelicet, Ingilenam, Asthianenam, Sophenam, 
Sophanenam, in qua est Martyropolis, Balabitenam. 

Ttov T6 idvtov .... Tlo(f>avr(V7] re Kdl ^AvItjttjvt), 7) T£>o<f>avrjvr) 
/cat 'A(?9iav7]V7i /cat BaAafiiTrjvr} KaXovfxivr] Kal vtto crarpdirais 

Sancimus itaque, si quidem ab Aegyptiaco , , . vel Armenis 
et gentibus ... ( 2 ) 

Let us merely note for the time being that the number of Satrapies 
given here does not coincide. There were five according to Procopius, 
while the official documents give five in one case and six in the other. 



But first, let us become familiar with the location of these provinces, 
Asthianene and Balabitene, the Armenian HasteanF and Balahovit, 
of which we already have had occasion to speak, lay along the Arsanias 
— Murad-su, the tributary of the Euphrates 2a . The fact that they 
are listed among the Satrapies shows that they occupied not only the 
right but also the left bank of the river. Asthianene corresponded 
approximately to the modern Gene Kazasi and Qapakeur, and Bala- 
hovit to the Pain Kazasi [Balu]. Balahovit means in Armenian 
" the valley of Bal " from Bal and limit Consequently, the original 
name of the locality obviously was Bal, from which the genitive form 
Balu is derived 3 . It is possible that there is a relation between 
Asti-eme and ASti-s&fc, in which case we must acknowledge that Astisat 
was once a city of Asthiane [Asthianene] later transferred to Taron 4 . 
The remaining provinces lay to the south, between the Euphrates 
and the western Tigris. 

The territory including Sophene, Anaitene, and Sophanene, as well 
as Angelene [Ingilene], had been known in earlier times under the 
single name of Sophene, According to Strabo, the bed of the Euphra- 
tes was its western boundary, and in the south it was separated from 
Mesopotamia by the Masios, one of the main branches of the Taurus, 
which lay above Msibis. In the north Sophene stretched to AMlisene, 
Its eastern Hroits can be determined by the position of its capital 
Karkathiokerta, which " adjoined the Tigris ", and probably stood 
on the site of Martyropolis 5 . The Armenian historian Eaustus [of 
Byzantium] put the castle of Bnabel, where the treasure of the Ar- 
menian kings was kept, into Sophene [Cop'k*] 5a . Bnabel is the 
Koiarpov BavafiijAcov of George of Cyprus and the small modern 
village of Benabil, a few kilometers from Mardin. Also in Sophene 
lay the village of Phtr, Phitar, the native place of the blessed Habiba ; 
it should be identified with the modern *Phitar [Phittur, Eittar], 
which is also found not far from and to the west of Mardin 6 . Hence, 
it is evident that Strabo did not exaggerate the frontiers of Sophene 
on the Mesopotamian side. Sophene, within the indicated limits, 
is primarily a political term; in the ethnographic sense it contained 
a mixture of populations, but there are no indications of subdivisions 
in Strabo, who was well acquainted with Sophene. The partition 
of the country into separate provinces came later as part of the 
development of feudal-wax amr institutions. 
The first district to separate itself because of its ethnic composition, 



was probably Anzitene. Even in the sixth century, this region was 
inhabited by the nation of the Urta, distinguished from the Armenians 
and the Syrians by their language 7 , Ptolemy is the first of the 
classical writers to mention Anzitene as one of the three provinces 
in the southern part of Armenia, between the Euphrates and the 
sources of the Tigris 8 , According to the usual point of view, Anzitene 
[Anjit'] lay on the Ziban-[Tigris], to the south of Asthianene, 
but careful investigation shows that this location is not exact 9 , John 
of Ephesus, who is very familiar with the region, since he was a native 
of Angelene, mentions among other villages of Anzitene, the village 
and monastery of Hula whence came the blessed Maras 10 . Near 
Xarberd [Harput] there is at present a village named Hulvenk with a 
population of 2,000 inhabitants n . The last syllable of the name is 
composed of the Armenian i[whg [vanF " monastery "]; hence, Hul- 
venk means the monastery of Hul, and there can be no doubt that this 
Hul is to be identified with the historical Hula. Another village, not 
far from the same city, is named Tilenzit (Thil-enzit), and it is impos- 
sible to miss the ancient name of the province in the second part of its 
name. Thil-enzit means, in Syrian, the hill of enzit lia . These two 
examples provide the basis for moving Anzitene from the system 
of the Tigris to the plain of Harput, The historical indications 
of both ancient and relatively recent authors support this. According 
to Ptolemy, the cities of Mazara, Anzita, Belkania, Arsamosata 
(Maldpa, "Av^ira, BskKavla, ^ApaafMotjara), among others, were found 
in Anzitene, while according to the Armenian Geography, it included 
Covk' and Hore-berd {tjm[g, Znpi—^pi) llb . In 1073 the Roman 
commander Philaretos, an Armenian Chalcedonian, stopped in Msar 
and demanded the submission of T'ofnik, Prince of Sasun; having 
received a rebuff, Philaretos marched against him. T'ornik prepared 
to repulse the attack, came forth to Capl-Jur, thence to the city of 
Asmusat, and met the enemy on the field of Aleluya, Philaretos was 
defeated and saved himself through flight to Xarberd, while T'ornik 
returned home to Sasun, " All this happened " says the historian 
" in the province of Anjit' on the field of Aleluya " 12 ; hence the 
localities of Xarberd, Asmusat and Aleluya were considered to be 
in the province of Anzitene. 

Msar, where Philaretos established his camp, was a district of 



the Mu§ar mountains by tlie side of tlie Euphrates opposite MeHtene 
[Malatya] in which stood tlie Armenian monastery of St, Aaron 
(Surb Aaron), Between Mu§ar and Xarberd we know of tlie town 
of Belhan at the foot of the mountains of the same name, the BeA/cavta 
of Ptolemy, South of it, the village of Mazara on the river which 
flows into the Euphrates is identical with the historical Mazara, 
In the famous itinerary of the Tabula Peuiingeriana Mazara is indicated 
as the fourth station after Melitene: " Melentines YIII ad aras IX 
Thirtoma VIII Mazara" 13a , Ad aras designated the bank of the Eu- 
phrates at the village of Iz-oglu [Izolu], where the ferrying over the 
river takes place at present and probably likewise in antiquity. Erom 
here to the modern village of Mazara there are no more than 40 kilo- 
meters, which correspond to the 25 miles from the river bank to 
Mazara indicated in the itinerary 13 , 

The Armenian Covk ? is now rendered by the Turkish translation 
Goleuk [Hazar golu]. This is a small alpine lake not far from Harput 
and near the sources of the western Tigris with a castle of the same 
name on an island 14 , Hore-berd may be identified with some likeli- 
hood with JTarberd, especially if we admit that the Harta-bert of Arab 
writers is to be read Hare-bert 15 , As we have seen, -Zarberd lay in 
Anzitene on the plain of Aleluya, Here too was to be found the city 
of Samusat, Alelu-dast can therefore be identified with the "fair 
plain " of ancient sources in which was found the city of Arsamosata 16 , 
The plain of Xarberd — Harput fully deserves this flattering name, 
since even in our times it is outstanding for its fertility and populous- 
ness, A large part of the 300 villages in the kaza of Harput are situated 
in this plain. It is called Oluova in Turkish, i.e, the great plain, 
but it is evident that the word Olu, going back to the ancient name 
Aleluya, is merely assimilated to a. Turkish meaning. 

The other city of Anzitene, Samusat, stood on the Arsamas — 
Murad-su, not far from Xarberd, According to the description of 
the Arab writer of the beginning of the tenth century, Ibn-Serapion, 
the river Arsanias, which he also calls the river of Shamshat, "flows 
by the gate of the city of Shamshat, and then passes near the gate 
of a fortress called Hisn-Ziyad", Ibn-IQiordadhbeh, an author of 
the ninth century, also mentions that " Shamshat is not far from 
Hisn-Ziyad ". The indications of Yakut tend to the same conclusion. 
According to them, the Armenian city of Shimshat, already in ruins 
in his time, i.e. at the beginning of the thirteenth century, still existed 



with a very small population between Zarberd and Balu. Hisn- 
Ziyad, that is to say the fortress of Ziyad, is another name for Harta- 
berd or Zarberd, as Yakut among others attests 17 . 

In the plain of Harput, between lake Golcuk and the Arsanias, 
stands the village of Shamushi, Shamushiya or Shamshey, whose 
name recalls the ancient Shamshat. The complete identification of 
the two is perhaps be hindered by the description of Samosata [sic] 
as a fortress set in the mountains. According to Ibn-Serapion there 
is " a mountain that is over the city, and which closes it in ", and 
Tacitus calls the city a casiellum x 7 a . It is possible that the historical 
city was in a region closer to the mountains, and that upon its des- 
truction, the surviving population moved to the nearby plain and 
transferred the name of its native city to the new settlement, as has 
often been the case. We are not familiar with the topography of 
modern Shamushi, it may be a fortified place, and even if it becomes 
evident that Shamushi cannot be identified with the ancient city 
from this point of view, it still remains the area in whose neighbour- 
hood the ancient site must be sought. This conclusion is further 
supported by the fact that the history of the campaigns of Paetus 
and Vologaesus places Samosata on the main road from Melitene 
to Amida and Tigranokerta, and Shamushi lies on this route. 

According to Tacitus, Paetus, the Koman commander sent against 
Vologaesus, set out from Cappadocia and halted in the region of 
Arsamosata to bar the enemy's way, 

... he posted three thousand picked infantry on the neigh- 
bouring heights of the Taurus, ... his cavalry, were stationed 
in a part of the plain. His wife and son found concealment 
in a fortress known as Arsamosata. .... 

,„ the river Arsanias (,.. ran hard past the camp) 18 . 

When Vologaesus advanced, the Romans standing in his path could 
not withstand the attack and were thrown back ; the survivors retired 
to out of the way places while the wounded fled back to the camp, 
Vologaesus besieged the fortress in which those unfit to bear arms had 
found protection, i.e. Arsamosata, in which Paetus' family was appar- 
ently not the only one to have taken refuge 18a , Paetus was forced to 
begin negotiations and obtained the raising of the siege on the 
conditions that all soldiers should leave the confines of Armenia and 
that the fortress should be handed over to the Parthians, Paetus 




built a bridge to cross the Arsanias, which flowed past the boundary 
of his camp, but the Parthians seized it and prevented the crossing. 
The Komans were then forced to set out in another direction. Paetus 
retreated hastily, and on the banks of the Euphrates he met Corbulo, 
who had previously been in Syria but was hastening to his assistance 
through Kommagene and Cappadocia. We see from this account 
that the mountain passes occupied by Paetus lay in the part of the 
Taurus which runs down to the Arsanias above Arghana-Maden, 
Vologaesus crossed the mountains and besieged Axsamosata-Shamushi, 
near which stood Paetus' camp. Paetus intended to cross the Arsanias 
and go north, but the Parthians forced him to move westward toward 
Malatya. The meeting with Corbulo occurred at the crossing of the 
Euphrates, From the account of Cassius Dio we learn that Volo- 
gaesus " closed to Paetus the way to Khandeia on the bank of the 
Arsanias ", hence Khandeia was the place to which Paetus had originally 
been making his way when he met Parthian opposition. From the 
sense of the story, this locality stood on the opposite side of the Arsa- 
nias, that is to say on the right bank of the river 1 8b . The crossing of 
the Arsanias [now] takes place above Shamushi at the town of Pistek 
[Pertek?]. Here, on the banks of the river, lie the ruins of an 
unknown ancient city, which are suited to Khandeia, the Armenian 
Erand, a locality well known from the history of the Armenian king 
Pap in Faustus [of Byzantium] 19 . 

In Anzitene Ptolemy mentions the settlement of "Av&ra, whose 
site is even less well defined than that of Arsamosata 19a . Ephraem 
Syrus mourns in his poems the fate of the fortress of Anzit, which 
suffered in his time from the attacks of the Persians together with 
a number of other cities. This is unquestionably Amrnianus Mar- 
eellinus' fortress of Ziata, which was indeed taken by the Persian 
king Sahpuhr in 359, and yet the castellum Ziata seemingly should cor- 
respond to Hisn-Ziyad, the name given by Arab writers to Zarberd 3 # t) , 
The relationship between Ziata and Ephraem's Anzit, and both their 
relationships to "Av^ira are completely unclear. The problem is 
further complicated by the fact that Ibn Serapion also knows and 
speaks of a city named Hinzit, but he places it in a locality far from 
Zarberd. According to his information the Euphrates rose on the 
Akradkhis mountain, and flowed past the foot of the Misfma mountains 
" it passes the city of Kamakh and by Hisn-al-Minshar, Next, after 
flowing past Malatya which is two miles from its bank, it comes to 



the city of Hinzit, next to the* city of Sumaysat, etc, ... ", In this 
description, Anzit stands between Malatya and Sumaysat — Syrian 
Arsamosata [Samosata], According to the words of the same 
author, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates flows out of the moun- 
tains at 62°20' by 41°5', passes through the city and province 
of Anzit and empties into the Euphrates at 61°30' by 39°20' 19c . 
Erom these coordinates the tributary on which Anzit was standing 
flowed from east to south-west and, therefore, lay, together with 
the city, on the east bank of the Euphrates. It is difficult to say 
which tributary is 1 intended, but the position of the Galgar river on 
which Mazara is situated seems the most suitable, and Anzit should 
be sought there 19d , On this side the province of Anzitene stretched 
aU the way to the bank of the Euphrates, as may be seen from the 
indication that the plain of Anzit began immediately beyond Malatya, 
on the other side of the Euphrates 20 , 

The precise determination of the position of Anzitene is very im- 
portant, as it was the probable cause of the split of Sophene into two 
parts. Since Anzitene formed the central strip of the original Sophene, 
its separation from the complex broke Sophene into eastern and 
western or rather north-western and south-eastern parts. The first 
of these lay along the Arsanias, next to Balabitene and between the 
Munzur [Mzur] river and the Euphrates, It stretched northward 
past Qemi§gezek, Mazgirt and Zozan [Hozat] to the natural boundary 
of the *Kazikli mountains and was called Sahunian Sophene or Sahe, 
or occasionally Lesser Sophene in opposition to Greater Sophene, 
i.e. to the south-eastern half which lay south of Asthianene on either 
side of the western Tigris. As we have already seen, this portion 
reached both Benabel and Phitar on the right, 

According to the indication of Faustus of Byzantium 20a , Sahunian 
Sophene lay between Anzitene and the Mzur. In the Armenian 
Geography Sophene is defined as the province " to the west of Palnatun 
and Balahovit " 20fe , i.e. it coincides with Sahunian Sophene, It 
is curious that Ptolemy also includes merely the territory of Lesser 
Sophene under the name of Sophene, Sophene, for him, is one 
of the provinces included between the Euphrates and- its tribu- 
tary the Arsanias and it lies next to Akilisene and Asthianene along 
this tributary of the river, i.e. along the Arsanias sl . Among Armenian 
writers only Eaustus knows and distinguishes between two Sophenes, 
In western literature the two Sophenes are mentioned in the protocols 





of the Council of Chaleedon in 451, Numbered among the provinces 
represented at the Council, we meet Mesopotamia with six representa- 
tives: the bishops of Amida, Sophene, Anzitene, Martyropohs, Ingile- 
Angelene and Sophanene S3 , The distinction between the two pro- 
vinces emerges very clearly from the decrees of Justinian already 
cited ; here too it is expressed by the names Sophene and Sophanene. 
Thus western documents differentiate two names that are in fact 
hut variant forms of the same name, Prom the Graeco-Koman point 
of view the form Sophene is more ancient and customary than Sopha- 
nene, It is the one met in Strabo, Pliny, Plavius Josephus, Plutarch, 
Appian, Diodorus Siculus, Ptolemy and others. The form Sophanene 
occurs for the first time in the second century author Appian, as 
given by Stephen of Byzantium 23 , We do not know the meaning 
which Appian attached to Sophanene, but the fifth century writer 
who made use of him apparently failed to notice the difference between 
the two forms, It is doubtful that Cassius Dio, in whose work we also 
find the form Sophanene, used it in distinction to Sophene a3a . It is 
very likely that for him as well as others Sophanene and Sophene 
were identical: they used these terms for one and the same country, 
with which they were more or less familar, and without any particular 
territorial delineation, The difference between them, which began 
to appear later was purely conventional. 

The country with which we are concerned was known long before 
the Christian era under the name of Supani, to which corresponds 
the form 2co<f>av-7)vrj, consequently, even though Uw^vrj is the earlier 
form of Sophene from the Graeeo-Roman point of view, historically 
Sophanene is unquestionably the more ancient form. The pTe- 
Armenian version, Supani came into Armenian in the form Cop'F, 
where the final F (j>) is merely the equivalent of -ani> the plural 
ending of the language used by the pre- Armenian inhabitants of the 
country. The name Supani has been preserved correctly in the 
Syrian form Sophan-aye, probably as a result of the closer relationship 
between the Syrians and the ancient populations 331) , The Armenian 
and the Syrian versions overlapped in a real, that is to say in a geo- 
graphical sense; they designate the same country primarily settled 
by peoples of both Armenian *and Syrian descent. The Greeks first 
became acquainted with Sophene from its Armenian side, i,e, with 
the north-western part which adjoined the Euphrates and had a 
predominently Armenian population. Hence they began to call 



the entire country Soph-ene from the Armenian name Cop'k' (as so 
likewise Gugar-k' — rcoyap-yjvrj). When, however, Mesopotamia be- 
came a Roman province under Trajan in the second century A J),, 
and the Romans came into close contact with the southern side 
of Sophene as well, they likewise adopted the Syrian form of the 
name, and Sophanene began to be used side by side with Sophene 
as an equivalent term, 

After the division of Sophene, its parts kept their former single 
name among the Armenians, with the distinguishing epithets; Sahu- 
nian, or Lesser, and Greater Sophene. In the Graeco-Roman world 
an understanding of the situation could come only after 298, when 
the upper reaches of both channels of the Tigris came under Imperial 
authority. Then the Armenian form, Cop'k 9 -Sophene, was given to 
Upper Sophene and the Syrian version Suf an- Sophanene, to the 
Lower portion, adjoining Syria. The Syrians likewise began to 
refer to Armenian Sophene as Sof 2 % but the final setting of the names 
did not take place at once; even in the fifth century it was not 
familiar to everyone, as we seem from the example found in Stephen 
of Byzantium. Sophanene in its new sense, i.e. as an equivalent 
for Armenian Greater Sophene, is used for the first time in an imperial 
decree of 387 in the name of " Gaddanae sairapae Sophanenae" 24a . 
The Syrian name of the satrap points to Greater Sophene where 
Syrian influence was strong. 

Part of Sophene was known as Angelene [Ingilene], Its appearence 
seems to date from a period later than the partition of Sophene, 
and it grew out of Greater Sophene in the same manner as Amzitene 
had developed from the original undivided Sophene. In the fourth 
century, under the Christian Arsacids, Angelene [Angel-tun] was a 
royal domain. During the reign of Arsak II, in a difficult moment 
of general discontent, when the feudatories-nc^^ra^ began to abandon 
the King, Angelene remained loyal to him, and when Musel Mami- 
konean re-established Arsacid power over the rebellious provinces, 
Angelene was not subjected to the same punishment as the other 
districts, " because, having been a royal domain from very early 
times, the entire province remained in submission ". During the 
disastrous raids of Prince Meruzan Arcruni, Arsak II remained in 
Angelene, and this province evidently became the temporary seat 
of the Arsacid kings. Here " were to be found the tombs of the 
Arsacids and were kept the treasures accumulated by their ancestors 



from ancient times ". For this xeason Meruzan rushed through 
Arzanene and Greater Sophene, and broke into Angelene to lay siege 
to the fortress of Angel. Under Arsak and his father Tiran, Drastamat 
was known as Prince of Angelene, but in fact he did not possess the 
province in his own right. He ruled it by appointment of the king 
whose favour he enjoyed. The defense of the royal fortress and its 
treasure was entrusted to him, and his actual title was Ostikan, a name 
found in connexion with the Ostan, which probably meant the ruler 
of the royal Ostan or domain. As such, he occupied a high rank 
among the other princes 25 . A powerful base in the south, that is to 
say in the region which played such a large role in the conflict between 
the Eomans and the Persians, was indispensable for the Arsacids, 
They fortified themselves in the castle of Angel, thus laying the 
foundation for the creation of the separate district of Angelene, which 
took its name from the fortress. The section of Sophene surrounding 
the castle of Angel and washed by the waters of the Ziban-Tigris 
and of the Arghana-su entered into it, and the ruins of the famous 
castle of Angel still he near the little settlement of Egil, which has 
preserved its ancient name, * With the separation of Angelene, the 
Hmits of Sophene were significantly diminished on that side. On the 
left bank of the Tigris it kept only the district of Martyropolis, and 
even this was later transferred to Ar^anene, as we see from the Arme- 
nian Geography, 

Thus the provinces described were situated between the Tigris 
and the Euphrates in the very order in which they are given in Paustus: 
the renegade Meruzan Arcruni at the head of the Persian army crossed 
in a devastating raid " through Axzanene [Aljnik*], Greater Sophene 
[Cop c k*], Angelene [Angeltun], Anatene [AnjitJ, Sahunian Sophene ", 
and further to the north through [Muzuron] Mzur, Daranahk* and 
AkUisene [Ekeleae] 25a , Hence both Sophenes, Angelene and Anzitene, 
together with Asthianene and Balabitene, made up the six autonomous 
^principalities. They are all named in the official documents cited 
above, and yet we have seen that Procopius lists only five satrapies ; 
whence comes this discrepancy? The number five is probably 
suggested to Procopius by the historical memory of those five so-called 
trans-Tigritane satrapies which were so famous in the history of 
Persian-Roman relations. In 298, after the shameful defeat inflicted 
by Galerius Maximianus on the Persian king Narseh, " Ingilene with 
Sophene and Arzanene with Corduene and Zabdicene ", is, five 

% ^ 



provinces in all passed to the Komans 25b , In 363 the Persians took 
their revenge and the dreaded Sahpuhr II, having defeated Jovian, 

,,, obstinately demanded the lands which (as he said) were 
his and had been taken from him long ago by Maximianus; 
... five provinces on the far side of the Tigris: Arzanena, Moxo 
ena, and Zabdicena, as well as Rehimena and Corduena ... 26 .- 

The historian presents the matter in such a way that it would seem 
as though the same provinces are meant in both cases. In reality 
only three of the provinces conquered from the Persians in 298 were 
subject to return in 363, namely Arzanene, Korduene and Zabdikene, 
while two provinces, Ingilene and Sophene were left behind. The 
historian, having added Moxoene and Rehimene to the three returned 
provinces, re-establishes the number five, while pretending, through 
ignorance or intentionally, that these five provinces were identical 
with the ones occupied by the Romans in 298. To be sure, Moxoene 
is part of Arzanene, and Rehimene part of Zabdikene, and they had 
unquestionably entered into the complex of lands ceded by the Persians 
in 298. But if they are to be counted separately, the Romans received 
not five but seven provinces in 298, of which they returned five in 
363. In addition to Peter the Patrician and Ammianus MarceUinus, 
the " quinque gentium trans Tigridem " are also the ones mentioned 
by Procopius, since there is no doubt that Procopius confused the 
Armenian autonomous principalities with the " five trans Tigritane 
satrapies " 26a . 

In reality then there were six privileged principalities, Of these, 
two: Asthianene and Belabitene, were taken away from the other 
Armenia and added to the group of independent satrapies at a slightly 
later date, probably in 377. The peace of 363 had freed the hands of 
the Persians as far as Armenia was concerned, and Sahpuhr II declared 
against king Arsak II a long war which ended only with the latter's 
death. The emperor Valens thought it indispensable to interfere 
in Armenian affairs. Consequently he sent an embassy to Sahpuhr 
to inform him that the Persian claims in Armenia were illegal, and 
that, according to the specific terms of the treaty of 363, the inhabitants 
of that country had been granted their independence. The envoys, 
Victor the commander of the cavalry, and Urbicius Dux of Mesopo- 
tamia, carried out their mission correctly and honourably, but Am- 
mianus notes that they allowed themselves a deviation from the 
terms they had brought and accepted in addition " some small terri- 




tones that offered themselves to them in that same Armenia ". Sub- 
sequently, a return embassy " offered to the emperor these same 
lands that our [Roman] envoys had recklessly taken " 27 , The 
negotiations did not avert a conflict, since both sides remained dissatis- 
fied with the resxdts and prepared for war, Sahpuhr even ordered 
" to recover by arms ... the lands which Count Victor and Urbieius 
had taken over ", The order was obeyed and the Romans could 
not retaliate, since the invasion of the Goths in Thrace diverted the 
attention of the Emperor from the Orient, He was forced to terminate 
the matter with a truce and again sent Victor to the Persians, " that 
he might, in view of the great impending dangers arrange about 
the status of Armenia " while he himself set out from Antioch to the 
capital, An agreement took place and peace was restored, but we 
do not know on what terms 28 . Evidently the Romans accepted the 
offer of the Persian ambassador, the Surena, which had previously 
been rejected by Valens. Specifically, the Romans agreed to occupy 
those minor territories in Armenia which had been under discussion 
since the beginning of the negotiations, 

These small territories, " regiones exiguae " were Asthianene and 
Belabitene, The conflict had essentially arisen on the basis of the 
relations established by the treaty of 363, This treaty concerned 
Armenia in general and the Tigris provinces in particular, It soon 
became evident thaWthe clause concerning Armenia was differently 
interpreted by the two opponents. The Persian king considered 
himself free in respect to Armenia, while the emperor Valens insisted 
on the inviolability of the country, " whose people had been granted 
permission to live independently ", The Persians felt themselves 
to be the masters of Armenia, and in order to forestall the claims of 
the Emperor, they agreed from the beginning to cede to him out of 
the Armenian territory subject to Persia, Asthianene and Belabitene, 
i.e. the provinces adjoining the imperial satrapies. The date of this 
event cannot be set with precision. Valens had come to the Orient 
to carry on the war, and was at Antioch in 377 29 . The second embassy 
of Victor to the Persian king took place at this same time, and the 
reunion of the two provinces with the Satrapies must belong to this 
same period, Ammianus Marcellinus, relating the events of 359-360, 
says that the trans-Tigritane nations were separated from Armenia 
by the Taurus 30 . This means that in 360 Asthianene and Belabitene, 
the provinces lying beyond the Taurus, were not yet reunited with 
the Satrapies, This reunion took place only in 377-378, 



The composition of the provinces of Armenia Interior and their position along the 
Euphrates — Xorjayn and Pamatun, the modern Kigi kazasi — Mzur, on the Munzur 
deresi — Daranalik 5 , the district of Kemah — ■ Ekeleac, the district of Erzincan — 
Derjan, a portion of the modern Tercan kazasi — Manafrk 5 , and its location according 
to Axistakes Lastiyertci — Karin and Salagom — AKwn-Analibna — The infor- 
mation on Armenia Interior found in western sources — The split of this province at 
an earlier date — Analysis of some toponyms, the characteristic ending -ali, -eli and 
its significance — Its connexion with Aliwn and Aly-3 — ^Z^-bi and Ghaly-hi ■ — 
Armenia Interior and Tzanika, the frontier zone between Armenian and Tzan territory 
The Tzans and the topography of their land: the main sites and their location, 

The part of the former Arsaeid holdings surrounded by the Eu- 
phrates and inherited by the Koman Empire formed Greater or 
Interior Armenia, " Magnam Armeniam, quae interior dicebatur ", 
or " T7]v }xkv iv8oTaT7)v " as it is called in the Novella of Justinian- a . 
Eleven gawafs, or districts, of Arsaeid Greater Armenia entered into it; 
Xorjayn [Chorzane], Palaatun, Mznr [Mxisxiron], Daranahk', Ekeleac, 
A&wn, ManahF, Derjan [Derxene], Karin, Salagom, and Sper [Suspi- 
litis]. Among them, the following are also found in Eanstus: Dara- 
nalik', with the settlements of T'ordan and Ani; Ekeleac, with the 
settlements of T'il and Jfa^ ; Karin, with the settlement of Maragay ; 
Mztit, and Sper, Agat'angelos knows of Daranalik', with T'ordan; 
Ekeleac, with Erez and T'il, and of Derjan, with Bagayafic, Koriwn, 
in addition to Ekeleac and Derjan, also mentions two more districts: 
Zbrjanakan, and Patnatnn. Of the remaining districts, Salagom 
is first found in tazar P'arpeci, and ManaHk' in Sebeos. Finally 
the eleventh district, AKwn, is known in Armenian literature only 
from its listing in the Armenian Geography > and it is given in some 
cases as Ariwe \ 

According to the evidence of the Armenian sources, these provinces 
were distributed along the system of the Euphrates, Xorjayn, as 
we have said above, lay along the river [Mews] Gayl, the present Keli 
or Perisuyu, and corresponded approximately to the contemporary 
Turkish Kigi kazasi la . 



Palnatun, next to Xorjayn, on the lower Gayl at a point above 
its confluence with, the Munzur deresi was enclosed between the 
Mazgirt mountains, in the west, the Sipilus- Armenian Stub Loys 
[Salbiis ?] mountains, in the north, and the bank of the river, The 
district was named after its principal town Palin [Bagin], which has 
suxvived as a small settlement to this day 3 , Palin was considered an 
important fortress, as was the neighbouring Bain, Both fortresses 
are found in George of Cyprus under the forms Pahos and Ba<iou> 
louos in the corresponding provinces of Palines and Bilabetines 3 , 

Next to Palnatun lay the district of Mzur, along the riyer still 
called Munzur and at the foot of the mountains of the same name, 

The other provinces stretched along the Euphrates from Kama^ 
[Kemah] to its source near Theodosiopolis. North of Mzur, in order, 
lay Daranahk* and Ekeleac, their positions determined in the first 
case by the city of Kama^, the ancient Ani 3a , and in the second by the 
city of Erzincan or Erzenka, the ancient Erez, They were separated 
by the Gohanam. or Sepuh mountains [Kara dagi], the ancient Maneay- 
ayrk' 4 , Darana&F occupied the valley of the small Komur river; 
and Ekeleac was in the neighbouring plain watered by the small 
streams flowing to the Euphrates from the Sipikor mountains (in 
Armenian Surb Grigor or St, Gregory's mountains), T'ordan and 
Garni still stand at the foot of these mountains on the bank of the 
Euphrates; both localities were part of Darana3dk e 4a , Beyond the 
same mountains also stand the settlements of Ekeleac, Til and Xa^ 
[Hahi], on the banks of the river called Gayl in antiquity 5 , In the 
east, Ekeleac reached to the bend of the Euphrates and was adjacent 
to ManaHk 4 and Derjan at that point, The latter name is still pre- 
served in the Turkish Terean kazasi, with its chief city of Mamahatun, 
Modern Terean stretches along both sides of the Euphrates and 
occupies the course of two streams, the Tuzlasuyu and the Pulk eayi, 
of which the first empties into the Euphrates from the left, and the 
second from the right. In size it is much larger than the ancient 
Derjan and includes not only Derjan but also Manalik', The modern 
settlement of Pekerie, near Mamahatun, the ancient Bagayaric in 
Derjan, gives the position of this district to the north of the Tuzlasuyu, 
but there is no precise indication of the point at which Derjan was 
separated from the contiguous Manalik*. 

Some information as to the relation of Manalik* to Derjan and 
Ekeleac is found in Aristakes Lastivertci. In the chapter entitled 



" How in the borders of Mananali there burst out a conflagration of 
folly ", the historian relates the proselytism of a certain Kuncik, 
" ... an incestuous monk who lived hard by the fortified city called 
Siri, where to the present day they call a hamlet by his name ". 
Among others, the monk converted to his heresy three distinguished 
ladies, the mistresses of the villages of Kase and AHws. On one 
occasion the heretics tore down a holy cross in the village of Bazmal- 
biwr in the Pa^r mountains and chopped it to pieces, " so that the 
vulgar name of the spot was changed and it is called Zac (i.e. the cross) 
to this day ". The bishop, named Samuel, came to the place of the 
crime, seized the heretics, carried them to the city of Jermay and 
punished them with the brand of infamy. Soon after, a judge was 
sent out to investigate the matter. He came to the province of 
Ekeleac and called the bishop before him. Samuel set out to meet 
him, followed by a great multitude of people, reached " the shore of 
the Euphrates, where Mananali approaches thereunto ", and crossed 
the river in a boat to the side of " the village called Kot'er, for it 
was there that the judge was ", The judge, that is to say the inves- 
tigator, went from Kot'er to the residence of the bishop called P'rris 
and investigated the matter there 6 , 

According to the sense of the story, Siri, Kase, Ahws, Jermay, 
X ac and the mountain Pa^r were to be found in Mananali, or as the 
author expresses it " in the borders of Mananali ". As for Kot'er, 
it lay in Ekeleac, since it is the place specifically named in the area 
referred to in the general sentence, " he came to the province of 
Ekeleac ", Erom its name, the Mananali river, which flows into the 
Euphrates, must obviously water this province. It should be identified 
with the Tuzlasuyu, but unfortunately, the course of the Tusla has 
not yet been sufficiently investigated. According to some descrip- 
tions, it is composed of several tributaries which join together before 
Mamahatun and flows into the Euphrates at the point where the 
ancient bridge of Kotur still stands; others distinguish two main 
branches which meet before Mamahatun and empty into the Euphrates 
near the bridge but somewhat above the ancient Kotur 7 . 

Kotur is unquestionably the Kot'er of the Armenian historian, 
Historical Kot'er stood on the right bank of the Euphrates, however, 
while the modern village lies on the opposite side of the river. Ancient 
Kot'er must have stood on the left bank of the river since the Euphra- 
tes had to be crossed in order to reach it from the mouth of the Mana- 



nali river, Furthermore, when bishop Samuel came to Kot'er, he 
and the judge left on the following day for P'rris, To do this they 
did not have to cross the river ; hence P'rris, the residence of the bishop 
stood on the same side of the river as Kot'er. P'rris still exists at 
the present time ; it is pronounced Pirn and stands on the west bank 
of the Euphrates 8 . Hence, we believe that the modern Kotiir was 
founded only after the destruction of the ancient Kot'er. 

On the main southern branch of the Tuzla can be found at present 
the villages of Qerme, §irin somewhat to the west of it, and Kon§a 
south of the latter. These communities stand very close together 
and they must coincide with the ancient Jermay, Siri and Ease. 
The first of these names must now be pronounced Qerme, according 
to the rules of phonetic alteration. In manuscripts, the reading 
Sirni (the genitive of Sirin) is found side by side with Siri 9 ; this is 
the form preserved in modern §irin. As for Kase, since, according to 
Aristakes, its mistress was a neighbour of Kuncik who lived in Siri, 
and since Konsa now stands not far from §irin, it is more than likely 
that modern Kon§a is the ancient Kase, 

North-east of Qerme, at the foot of the Dumanli dagi, the village 
of Xac still stands at the present time with an Armenian population. 
Also, a little to the south of the same Qerme are located the Xac 
mountains (the Hac dagi) which stretch in a direct chain westward 
to the Euphrates itself and there bear the name of Bagirbaba dagi. 
Here, then, just as the historian indicated, are the Pa^r (genitive of 
Pa^ir) mountain, one of whose spurs was the Xac mountain where 
the cross insulted by the heretics was revered. The Hag dagi form 
the watershed of the Tuzla and Perisuyu, and send many streams 
north and south to both rivers. Consequently, a village standing 
in their midst might correctly have been called Bazm-albiwr (many 
springs), from the multitude of the surrounding springs. Later this 
village was re-named Xac in honour of the cross standing there. 
The modern village of Hackoy, on the Tuzlasuyu, at the foot of the 
Dumanli dagi, probably stands in the same relation to the ancient 
Xac as the modern Kotiir to the historical one 10 . 

The position of Manahk' is sufficiently clarified by the sites discussed. 
It stretched from the Bagirbaba-Hac mountains on the north to the 
Tuzlasuyu. Furthermore, the main or southern branch of the river 
separated Manalik 4 from Derjan, while the course of the Euphrates 
as far as Kotiir separated it from Ekeleac, and beyond the Tuzla 
began the territory of Derjan, 



The frontier point of Derjan and Karin was the fortress of Xaldoy- 
aric, which marked the border of Karin. Jfaldoy-afic is the present 
Kagdaric [Biiyukkagdarig] at the confluence of the Sirceme deresi 
and the Euphrates near Askale n . Near Zaldoy-afic are mentionned 
certain Kleisurai, probably the modern Brnakapan [Pirnakaban] 
— the narrows in Armenian — which are found east of A§kale at the 
foot of the Kop dag on the main line from Erzurum to Bayburt. 
Below Brnakapan begins the famous pass through the Kop dag 
which runs for 7 1/2 miles at an altitude of 8,040 feet 12 . 

The district of Karin on the upper courses of the Euphrates (Kara- 
su), with its metropolis Karin — Erzurum — lay east of Kagdaric, 
Adjoining it stood Satgom [Salagom] along the Sirceme, and there- 
after, near of Tayk', lay Sper in the district of the present Ispir, along 
the Qoruh river. 

All the sites we have considered are well known in classical literature 
as well as in earlier times, Strabo is thoroughly familiar with Karin- 
Karenitis, Derfan-Xerxene fro Derxene, and Akilisene, as the pro- 
vinces diverted by the Armenians from their neighbours, the Chaly- 
bians, Mosynoeci and Kataonians. He likewise knows Sper-Suspiritis, 
where gold mines were found 12a . Karin, according to Pliny, is the 
province whence the springs Euphrates, at the foot of the Capotes 
mountains, to flow through Derxene and subsequently Anaetica, 
Anaetica is a secondary name for Akilisene given it in honouT of the 
goddess Anahit [Anaitis], whose rites were particularly revered there. 
Akilisene is likewise called Anahtakan by Agat'angelos and the country 
of Anaitis by Cassius Dio I2b . Ptolemy knows the province of Akili- 
sene, and Procopius gives the form Ekelesene, which is closer to the 
Armenian 12c . Daranalia is found in the protocols of the sixth oecu- 
menical Council of 680. Among those present, we find " George, 
bishop of Daranalia (or Kama^) in Greater Armenia ". It is interest- 
ing that Daranalia is equated with Analiblae in the Latin translation: 
" Georgius episcopus ierriiorii Daranalis sive Analiblae, Magnae 
Armeniae regionis " 12d . The first mention of Chorzane is to be found 
in Procopius, who gives two versions: Chorzianene and Chorzane, 
corresponding to the Armenian Xorjean and J5Torjayn 12e . George of 
Cyprus lists Orzianines, Muzuron, and Palines among the Armenian 
eparchies 13 , If we accept the identification of AHwn with Analiblae 
or Analibnae, for which there are grounds, as we shall see, the only 
district of Armenia Interior still unknown from classical sources is 



With the exception of Salagom, the names of all the other districts 
are pre-Armenian in origin. These provinces kept their names, 
many of which were primarily ethnic designations, after the Armenians 
conquered them from the small neighbouring nations. Classical and 
Armenian authors agree on the names of the provinces and their 
divisions; the unimportant variations found between them can be 
explained by the fact that the information of Classical sources corres- 
ponds to an earlier state of affairs, 

Karenitis and Derxene [Xerxene], according to Strabo, " border on 
Lesser Armenia or else are part of it ". Since he takes the Euphrates 
as the boundary between Greater and Lesser Armenia, both districts 
must have lain partly on the right and partly on the left bank of the 
river 14 , This position agrees with the evidence of the Armenian 
sources, according to which, part of the districts under consideration 
lay on the right side of the Euphrates along the Serpeme deresi and 
the Piilk gayi 14a . 

Strabo likewise knows Akilisene, as a district on the left bank of 
the Euphrates: 

The Euphrates .,. with its winding stream, traverses more 
country, having its sources in the northerly region of the 
Taurus, and flowing towards the west through Greater Armenia 
as it is called, to Lesser Armenia, having the latter on its 
right and Acilisene on the left, It then bends towards the 
south, and at its bend joins the boundaries of Cappadocia 15 , 

Hence Akilisene stretched beyond Kemah to the border of Egin 
[Kemaliye] the Armenian Akn, the very point at which the bend of 
the Euphrates begins. According to the same writer, Mithradates, 
pursued by Pompey, fled to the border of the kingdom of Pontus and 
" .„ seized a well- watered mountain near Dasteira in Acilisene (near by, 
also, was the Euphrates, which separates Acilisene from Lesser Ar- 
menia) " 15a , Dasteira is equivalent to modern Dostal on the Euphrates, 
between Kemah and Akn, Elsewhere, Strabo places Akilisene 
between the Taurus and the Euphrates before its bend to the south, 
Here the Taurus is mistakenly given in place of the Anti-Taurus, 
as is obvious from the description, The Anti-Taurus begins at the 
meeting point of the Euphrates with the Taurus, and ends in the 
eastern part of Armenia, 

thus on one side enclosing the middle of Sophene, and having 
on its other side Acilisene, which is situated between the 



Antitaurus and the river-land of the Euphrates, before that 
river bends towards the south 15, \ 

According to Strabo's description, AMHsene was located along tie 
Euphrates between Derxene and the river's bend near Dostal, while 
in the south it bordered on Sophene, Strabo's information that 
AMHsene was once subjected to Sophene becomes clear from this 
description, It was then part of the possessions of Zariadris " king of 
Sophene, Acisene (AMHsene) Odomantis and certain other coun- 
tries " 15e , Within these limits, AMHsene seems to have been a fairly 
vast territory, including all the lands later occupied by AMHsene, 
DaranaHa, MananaH, AHwn, and Muzuron, 

The form Ak-iKs-ene is related to Daran-afeT, Ma,n~aMF and 
Mard-afe*^ 16 , i.e., it is composed of AM and ali {w^k — wqji)' 9 The s of 
the Classical form -His reproduces either the Armenian -o (corresponding 
to a pre- Classical -s) of the nominative, or the s of the Classical accu- 
sative, A number of geographical' names show the ending -ali, and 
some connexion may have existed between these territories in anti- 
quity. To this same category belong both the AHwn of the Armenian 
Geography and the AnaHbna, AnaHba, or AnaHbla given by Ptolemy 16 \ 
The Armenian AHwn, in which the w is the weak form of an original b, 
is unmistakably identifiable in the second half of An-alibna. 

Armenian AHwn is a province, while AnaHbna is a smaH settlement 
Hsted by Ptolemy among the cities of Lesser Armenia, According 
to the Iiinerarium Anionini, AnaHbna stood at a distance of 16 miles 
from Zimara, whereas tMs distance was only 15 miles according to 
the Tabula Peuiingeriana 161 \ The ruins of ancient Zimara are stiH 
visible near the modern village of Zimara, wMch has preserved the 
same name, and is located near Dostal, which we have already men- 
tioned. The precise position of the district of AHwn is unknown, 
It probably adjoined DaranaHk' since it is Hsted immediately after 
it in the Armenian Geography 16e . If tMs is the case, AHwn coincides 
with the region in which AnaHbna was located. In form, An-alibna 
belongs with Dar-anafo*F, Ake-ali, and the others. One of the 
provinces of Lesser Armenia stretching along the Lykos (KelMt eayi) 
and contiguous with AMHsene was caHed OrbaHsene by Ptolemy 
another a Httle further south was given the name of Orbisene by 
Mm. Furthermore Strabo Hsts one of the provinces included 
in the possessions of Zariadris as AMHsene in one place, but as AMsene 
in another 17 , If the second form is not merely a mistake for AMHsene, 



the two variants should be taken as having the same formation as 
Orbalisene and Orbisene. The existence of the form orbis-ene 
explains the variant or b~alis-ene; this is the composite form contain- 
ing the word ali-s with which we are concerned 18 , 

What is the meaning of ali-s 1 John of Erzinean, an Armenian 
writer of the end of the thirteenth century, derives the name Daran-ali 
from the existence of " salt deposits " in that province 10 , but this is 
merely a folk etymology. The ancient Manali river was probably 
renamed Tuzlasuyu, " salty river " in Turkish, in accordance with 
the same tradition. As is well known, the entire region from the 
source of the Halys to the valley of the Araxes abounds in rich deposits 
of salt, and this circumstance might seem to have reflected on the 
local toponymy. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that the alis found 
in the names under consideration derives from the Armenian w%[i — 

The most likely hypothesis is that *ali is an adjectival ending of 
pre- Classical Armenian origin, corresponding to the Georgian gt^o 
and the Classical Armenian £j£. Accordingly, Mard-ali means merely 
the Mard-ian (province), Man-ali, the Man-ian and Ak-ilisene, the 
Aki-ian one (qf, the district of Ake in Vaspurakan). In the proper 
place we shall see that the nation of the Alvta-voi hved in Atropatene, 
Hani, one of the districts of the province of P'aytakaran, was named 
after them. Strabo relates that part of them settled in Armenia, 
" above the Armenians beyond the Abus and the Nibarus " 19a . From 
his description we can deduce that Abus and Nibarus are Strabo's 
names for the twin peaks of Ararat. The fortress of Ani lying beyond 
them, which later became the famous capital of the Bagratids, evident- 
ly owed its name to the nation of the Ainia-noi. We know that the 
form Hani, corresponding to the Hani of P'aytakaran, can be found 
side by side with Ani in [Movses] JTorenaci 191 >. We presume that Dara- 
nalian Ani also had the same origin. Just as the Mardians, who were 
also immigrants from Atropatene, were to be found in two sections 
of Armenia, in Mardastan and Mardalik\ so the Ainianoi moving west- 
ward occupied localities both in Sirak and in Daranalik\ It is even 
possible that the movement of both peoples from one border of Ar- 
menia to the other was brought about by the same causes. The new 
home of the Ainianoi near the Euphrates must have been called 
*Analia (Ani-ali) by analogy with Mard-ah, and western authors 
derived their Analiba-Analibna from it. The b is obviously nothing 



but the sign of the plural (as in the case of the Georgian o& )- Hence 
Analiba means the Aniians, as, for example, Vra-eik' derives from 
Vir-k' (where k' is the equivalent of b). We have already noted that 
Daranalia, Kemah and Analiba are synonyms in the protocols of the 
Council [of 680] and designate one and the same province, Kemah is 
another name for the city of Ani in Daranalik' 19C , and their identifi- 
cation with each other is, therefore, understandable, but what is the 
relationship between Daranali and Analiba? Should we perhaps 
split Daranali into dar-analil In such a case it is not difficult to 
identify the singular form of analiba in the second half of the name, 
while dar may be compared with the der of Derjan - i>er-xene. In 
view of the proximity of Derjan to the land of the Tzans, jan or -xene 
can perhaps be connected with the T^dvoi — £whfiLg [Caniwk*] in 
Movses Xorenaci, (where w derives from -&), san-ebi-Jc 19d . As for the 
initial syllable der, it may perhaps be related to Jpi-Aot, the name 
of one of the neighbouring Colchidian peoples the *dar-ili, where 
-Hi is clearly the ending -eli, QCT > which we have already noted. 
In such a case Derjan becomes the combination of two ethnic terms 
similar, for example, to the Armeno-chalybes of Pliny 19e , 

Derjan has survived to modern times in two forms: Tercan and 
Dersim. A small district in the Dersim is called Kozlican [Kozluka], 
We presume that Dersim and Kozluka are the Arabo-Persian forms 
of the Armenian Derjan and Ekeleae, the medieval Kelesene (from 
*eke-les-akan), cf. Erzinean from *erka-kan. 

The place name AHwn, which might lead to the conclusion that 
ali is an independent word rather than a mere ending, does not support 
the preceding conclusion. However, the form AHwn cannot as yet 
be taken as a final reading; the hypothetical version [anjahwn may 
still be possible, Even if the present reading is to be maintained, 
a somewhat different explanation might be suggested. The form 
*alis begs for a comparison with MAus-Halys, the name of the famous 
river which springs from the mountains lying within the boundaries 
of Daranalik'. These mountains form the watershed of the Halys, 
Euphrates, and Lykos, and Strabo derives the name of the Halys 
from the salt deposits found along its course 20 . Etymologically, 
the name of the 'AXl-^wvoi, a people mentioned by Homer as living 
along the same river, also points to the Halys, Strabo, quoting the 
Homeric passage, suggests that the Halizonoi were the ancient Cha,]ybes 
known as Ohaldaei in his own time, and he is even inclined to correct 



the *AXvfi7)s of Homer into XaXv^rjs 20a . The great geographer is 
undoubtedly right in his identification of the Chal-ybes with the 
Chal-daei. The two names are grammatically equivalent, since ib and 
di are merely different signs for the plural (as are the Armenian w/» 
or the Georgian qo) ai . The variant forms may perhaps indicate 
different regions settled by these peoples, or else, different periods 
in their history reflecting the influence of the Colchidians and of the 
Armenians respectively, Pliny refers to those Chalybes who were 
neighbours of the Armenians as Armeno-chalybes 21a , Chaldia is 
occasionally referred to as an Armenian country 23 . As for the 
Homeric Halybes, the hypothesis of their identification with the Cha- 
lybes seems less convincing, Strabo bases his theory on the fact 
that both owned metal mines, but the Halybes of Homer extracted 
silver, while the mines of the Chalybes in the time of Strabo brought 
forth only iron, To reconcile the divergent facts, Strabo supposes 
that the territory of the Chalybes has " only iron-mines at the present 
time, though in earlier times it also had silver-mines " 23 , It is of 
course difficult to verify Strabo' s theory. It is by no means impossible 
that chair and al- or hah are dialectal variations of one and the same 
name, Gutschmid supposed that the name of the Chalybes derived 
from the Greek word -^akv^ copper ", and that this was the name 
given to the Pontic peoples who devoted themselves to the mining 
of metals 24 , but the reverse relationship, i.e., the derivation of the 
Greek name from origin to the country or nation whence copper was 
conveyed to the Greeks, seems more correct, To be sure, this does 
not exclude the possibility that ehal had connexions with the craft 
of mining ; the word had perhaps meant metal in one of the archaic 
Pontic languages. The comparison of the Halizonoi and the Chalybes 
is based on nothing more than guesswork. But might not Hali-zonoi 
and Halybes (<*ali-ib-i) be the names of the peoples who worked the 
salt mines along the Halys river, and might a confusion have arisen 
between them and the neighbouring Chalybes as a result of the similar 
character of their mining activities. In that case the Armenian 
Aliwn (*ali&n) and perhaps axx-aliba correspond to the classical Alyb-a, 
As for the name of the Halys river, it has an independent relation with 
the g'ala and sg'ali which are the Laze and Georgian words for " river ". 
The section of Armenia studied here {i.e. Armenia Interior), adjoined 
the Tzan country in the north. Beyond the border provinces of 
Ekeleac, Derfan, and Sper, opened the valleys of the Lykos-KelMt 


and of the Qoruh, bound on their northern and southern sides by 
lofty mountains. According to the Armenian Geography, these 
valleys lay outside the borders of Greater Armenia and belonged to 
Lesser Armenia 24a . Procopius considers it to be Armenian territory 
and mentions a number of cities and fortresses in it, Among them 
was found the city of Satala, and " [Justinian] also built a very strong 
fortress not far from Satala in the territory called Osrhoene ". In the 
same district, Pompey captured a fortress which had stood on a hilltop 
from ancient times; he greatly strengthened its fortifications and 
called it Koloneia, Here were likewise located the fortresses of 
Baiberdon and Areon, as well as Lysiormon and Lytararizon. New 
fortifications were raised by Justinian in the small village called 
Germani Fossatum, In addition to all these, Procopius also mentions 
the Armenian cities of Sebasteia and Nitopolis 25 , and places all 
these sites in " the Armenia which is on the right of the Euphrates 
river ", as against " Greater Armenia ", in which Theodosiopolis, 
Bizana, and Tzumina were to be found 26 , 

The historian then proceeds to a description of Tzanika, " .., for 
the Tzani ,., are neighbours of the Armenians ", and Sehamalinichon, 
where Justinian built the first church for the newly converted Tzans, 
lay in this region 36a , Furthermore, 

It happens that a certain point in that land forms the meeting- 
place of three roads ; for the boundaries of the Romans and 
the Persarmenians and the Tzans themselves begin here and 
extend from this point, Here he [Justinian] constructed a 
very strong fortress which had not existed previously, Horonon 
by name, maMng it the mainstay of the peace of the region. 
For the Romans were first able to enter Tzanica from that 
point 2f * 

Two days' journey from Horonon lay the stronghold of Charton in the 
land of the Okenitan Tzans, who were one of the many Tzan tribes. 
East of Charton, opened a steep gorge leading northward to the 
fortress of Barchon 26e , Still further north, on the slopes of the moun- 
tains, were the folds where the cattle of the Okenitan Tzans were 
sheltered at night, and their pastures. 

Beyond the foothills of the mountain, where the place called 
Cena lies in the level country, as one goes approximately 
westward there is a fort named Sisilisson; ,,, . And as one 
goes on from that fort, there is a certain place on the left, 


toward the north, which the natives call Longini Fossatum 
because in earlier times Longinus, a Eoman general, an Isaurian 
by birth, had made an expedition against the Tzani on one 
occasion and built his camp there. In that place this Emperor 
built a fortress called Bourgousnoes, one day's journey distant 

from Sisilisson From there begins the territory of the 

Coxyline Tzani, as they are called ; and here he has now made 
two forts, one called Sehamalinichon and the other is the one 
they call Tzanzacon 37 , 

Beyond the land of the Tzans, Procopius describes the country 
stretching along the Euxine Sea and having Trapezos as its capital : 28 

From here the territory of the Trapezuntines extends to the 
village of Susurmena and the place called Rhizaeum, which 
is two days' journey distant from Trapezus as one goes toward 

Lazica along the coast On the right of these places 

rise all the mountains of Tzaniea, and beyond them are the 
Armenians, who are subject to the Romans 28a . 

The Boas river flowed down from these same mountains. According 
to Procopius the Tzans lived in the neighbourhood of the Armenians, 
at a considerable distance from the sea, and many steep and inaccess- 
ible mountains rose in the midst of their land. Extensive stretches 
of the country were always deserted, and impassable ravines, wooded 
hills, and uncrossable precipices cut the Tzans off from the sea 29 . 
In 550, a detachment of Tzans participated in the siege of the fortress 
of Petra ; on the way home, it followed the coast to Rhizaion, thence 
went to Athenai, and finally reached home by way of Trapezos 30 . 
We can deduce from this journey that the Tzans did in fact live far 
inland from the seashore. 

The coastal strip from Trapezos to Rhizaion belonged to the 
Trapezuntine, and, beyond this point, to the Laze tribes, whereas 
the mountain districts stretching inland from this strip as far as the 
source of the Boas constituted the land of the Tzans. It is not clear 
whether the source of the river lay in Tzanika or in Armenia, since 
according to one indication it sprang from the Tzan mountains, and 
according to another, it began near the frontier of Tzanika on the 
territory of the Armenians living in Pharangion 30a , The position of 
the cities of Baiberdon [Bayburt] and Satala, is exactly known, since 
they still exist at the present time; the former, on the Qoruh, and 
Satala, now the village of Sadak, near the Kelkit river. Both are 
assigned to Armenia by Procopius. 



Above Sadak and Bayburt stretch the links of a long mountain 
chain which runs parallel to the coast from the direction of §ebinkara- 
hisar to the estuary of the Qoruh. In antiquity these were called the 
Parhars or Paryadres mountains, and the section which borders the 
Qoruh still bears the ancient name of Parhar or Bolhar [Parhar, 
Parhal], Since Satala, Baiberdon and Koloneia (now Koyulhisar) 30b 
all of which are situated on the southern spurs of the Parhar chain, 
belonged to Armenia, these mountains must be taken as the frontier 
between Armenia and Tzanika. According to Procopius, Tzanika 
lay north of this range and occupied a mountainous territory covered 
with forests. Consequently, the Tzans did not concern themselves 
with agriculture, but obtained the necessities of life through brigandage 
and stock-raising 81 . 

The clarification of the general situation of the territory of the 
Tzans makes it possible to determine the location of the sites already 
mentioned. Prom the multitude of tribes into which the Tzans were 
divided, Procopius mentions only two, the Okenites and the Coxyline 
[Koxylinoi], The former lived south of the latter. The home of the 
Okenites is determined by the position of Charton, the modern Hart, 
which stands on the western tributary of the Qoruh above Bayburt 
in the plain of Hart[Hart ovasi]. One day's march west of Charton, 
according to the indication of Procopius, stood the fortress of Horonon, 
which served the Eomans as a base for the conquest of Tzanika, 
and whence roads diverged in three directions: to Koman Armenia, 
to Persian Armenia and to Tzanika 3ia , At present, the two main lines 
of communication from Turkish Armenia to Trebizond, the one from 
Erzurum via Bayburt and Hart, and the other from Erzurum by way 
of Sadak, merge not far from Gumu§ane, Horonon stood at this 
junction point according to the words of Procopius, and indeed, 
there is a place called in Turkish Halanen hanlar, i.e. the village of 
Halane at the point of intersection of these roads. This Halane is 
nothing but the ancient Horonon ['Opovwv] con sypiritws asper. The 
accuracy of this conclusion is supported by the fact that Halane is 
at the precise distance from Hart indicated by Procopius, i.e. about 
40 kilometers (one day's journey for Procopius), Standing as it does 
at the head of the two mountain passes through which come the 
Erzincan and Bayburt roads, and serving as their defense, Horon5n- 
Halane might indeed have played an important part in the conquest 
of Tzanika, as we are told by the historian 31lD , 



On the other side of Hart, a gorge stretched toward the north, 
This is the gorge, called Chaldean (Zaldo-jor) by the Armenians, which 
forms the valley of the Qoruh river. Here stood BarcLon whose 
position is unknown though Bapx&v is obviously connected with 
the Parhar mountains which rise above this gorge, and axe the vexy 
mountains in which wexe found the folds and pastuxes of the Okenitan 
Tzans, specifically in the section of the Paxhar xange which lay above 
Hart, since this locality was the centex of the tribe. As fox the " level 
countxy " in which the settlement of Cena (Kena, altexnately Okena) 
was to be found, it must be the end point of the same mountains, 
Kena is in fact a moxe ancient foxm of T£,av- (the guttural h turning 
into a palatal ~t£ before a soft vowel or an iota subscript). The 
pxefexable reading is * Okena in which we find the locative prefix 
o-, *ho-, equivalent to the Georgian sa-. Okena was the residence 
of the Kena or Okenitan Tzans, Hence Okena was the homeland 
of the Okenitan tribe and consequently adjoined their pasture lands 
and farmsteads, 

Sisilisson is also mentioned by Procopius west of Okena 31C , It is not 
clear whether a connexion exists between Sisilisson and the Ziziola 
of the Tabula Peutingeriana and of the Itinerarium Antonini, Ziziola, 
as we shall see, was the last station on the road Mkopolis-Satala and 
stood 18 miles from the latter 31d , This road lay along the Gayl-KeUrit 
river, and Ziziola was, therefore, in the neighbourhood of the present 
KelMt, not far from Sadak, According to Procopius, Sisilisson, 
like Kena, lay on the northern slopes of the Parhar mountains, while 
Ziziola and Satala were situated on the opposite side, Ziziola is also 
known from the Notiiia Dignitatum, and a Eoman garrison had stood 
there long before Justinian 31e , The Tzans were conquexed only in the 
days of Justinian, however, so that their city, Sisilisson, could not 
have served as the home of a Roman garrison, Consequently either 
Ziziola is not to be identified with Sisilisson, and belonged in Armenia 
rather than Tzanika, while Sisilisson together with Okena should 
be sought in the northern foothills of the Parhar range ; or, if the 
phonetic similarity between Ziziola and UiuiXha-cov may not be 
disregarded, Okena will also have to be sought in the neighbourhood 
and to the east of Ziziola, is, in the plain of Bayburt, We are com- 
pelled to acknowledge a certain inconsistency in Procopius, who places 
Satala in Armenia while locating the adjoining Sisilisson-Ziziola in 
Tzanika, Perhaps Sisilisson served as a Tzan border post in the 

f" • 




direction of Satala, as did Hart in that of Bayburt. In general, 
the country of the Tzans lay north of the Parhar range, while Hart, 
the center of the Okenitans, stood further south, opposite Baybuxt 
and Sadak. Sisilisson-Ziziola, as a relatively southern Tzan locality, 
apparently stood in the same relation to the whole of Tzanika. 

One day's march from Sisilisson lay Bourgousnoes, not far from the 
Fossatum Longini, and beyond Bourgousnoes began the district 
of the Koxylines, with the cities of Schamalinichon and Tzanzakon, 
At present, the village of Zavzoka stands, on the Kara-dere su nearer 
the coast, in the vicinity of Siirmene, and its position suits Proeopius' 
description of T£av£a/c-o>v 32 . South of Zavzoka, on the same river, 
the name of another village, Zimla [Kuciikzimla or Buyukzirnla], 
recalls the ancient Uxajj,aXivlx-cov, Judging from this, the Koxylines 
occupied the valley of the Kara-dere. Ko^-vXt-voi is made up of 
the elements *koks and uli, the Georgian £)(™o, The region adjoining 
Trebizond in the west is now T called Kose and it is impossible to over- 
look the ancient Kog- in its name. We know that the memory of 
the Tzans has been preserved in the modern toponym, Djanik [= 
Samsun], which includes the lower course of the Har§it cayi, but 
the Tzans were driven there at a later date 32a , In antiquity the 
Tzan tribes lived east of the Har§it, from the vicinity of Ardasa and 
Gumushane all the way to Hemsni. Hence, at that time they occupied 
the entire range of the Parhar and partially spilled over into the valley 
of the Boas-Qoruh and of the Gayl-Kelkit. Zigana stands north 
of Ardasa, on the main road to Trebizond, at the foot of the mountains 
bearing its name. In antiquity, Zigana was an important place 
and served as residence for one of the five bishops of the eparchy of 
Lazika 33 , and from an ecclesiastical point of view Tzanika was part 
of Lazika. Thus the Tzans had been one of the numerous peoples 
who had settled the country known as Khaldia in more ancient times, 
and, with the growing political importance of the Tzans in the seventh 
century, the entire country became known as Tzanika. A little 
later, in the eight century, the ancient name was revived, and we 
know that at the time of the division of the Theme of Axmeniakon, 
one of its parts received the name of Khaldia. 



History of the territory of Leaser Armenia — Her role in the history of Armenia 

— Armenia as part of Cappadocia — Greater Cappadoeia and Cappadocia Pontica — 
The division of Cappadoeia into strategies — Cappadoeia Pontica — The divisions 
of Cappadoeia according to Ptolemy — Description of the strategies and of their 
development in Strabo — The separation of Lesser Armenia — Lesser Armenia 
tproprie. dicta and her five districts: Orbalisene, Aitulane, Hairetike, Orsene, and Orbisene 

— Their topography: the cities according to Ptolemy, the stations according to the 
liinerarium Antonini and the Tabula Peutingeriana — The main circuit route — 
The internal routes — Their clarification and their comparison with the modern lines 
of communications — • The identification of ancient sites — Closest possible deter- 
mination of the boundaries of Lesser Armenia — Lesser Armenia as an administrative 
unit within the Empire — The Verona List and the Laterculus of Polemins — The 
evidence of ecclesiastical geography — The division of Lesser Armenia into Armenia I 
and II — The chief cities of both portions. 

The Armenian territory located on the western bank of the Eu- 
phrates was called from ancient times Lesser Armenia (rj jxiKpa 
y Apixsvia) as against Greater Armenia. The position of this land 
in the history of Armenia has been rather curious. After serving 
as the cradle of national and political life, so to speak, Lesser Armenia 
was torn away from the rest of Armenia and set on a path of denationa- 
lization 8 '. She had been the first to win political independence among 
the ruins of the Achaemenid Empire, and to enjoy the rule of native 
princes long before the appearance of the kingdoms of Zariadris in 
Sophene and of Artaxias in the valley of the Araxes. Strabo notes 

This country is fairly fertile. Lesser Armenia, like Sophene, 
was always in the possession of potentates, who at one time 
were friendly to the other Armenians and at other times minded 
their own affairs, They held as subjects the Chaldaei and the 
Tibareni, and therefore their empire extended to Trapezus 
and Pharnacia K 



Btit her good fortune was to be short lived. Soon came the troubled 
era of Mithradates, Lesser Armenia became subject to the great 
conqueror in the period of his growing power in Pontus, and after 
him, she passed to the Romans. Once inside the sphere of Roman 
world polities, she could no longer free herself or escape Roman in- 
fluence, and she obediently endured all the changes of fortune which 
she shared with Cappadocia and the neighbouring Pontic lands, 
First she passed from hand to hand at the will of the Roman authorities 
who presented her as a gift to this or that client prince: Pompey gave 
her to Deiotarius, the tetrarch of Galatia, Caesar to Ariobarzanes of 
Cappadocia, Caligula to Cottys, prince of Thrace, Nero to Aristobulus. 
Finally, once under Tiberius, and definitely under Vespasian, she 
was made into a Roman province. 2 

The importance of Lesser Armenia has not been sufficiently appre- 
ciated in the history of Armenia. In the traditional interpretation, 
Lesser Armenia is considered to have remained not only outside 
Armenia, but also outside her cultural sphere as a result of their 
early separation. This point of view is so firmly entrenched that 
historians exclude Lesser Armenia without a qualm from the area 
of Armenian interests, This traditional concept of Lesser Armenia 
requires a critical review, since the exclusion of an entire region having 
a native Armenian population from the history of Armenia is un- 
justified. In reality, Lesser Armenia inherited as its share a very 
important role in the political life of the Armenians, This role can 
be appreciated at its true value only if we abandon the ecclesiastical 
point of view to which Armenian historiography has adhered and to 
which it still clings. This one sided approach to the subject has 
hindered the study of Lesser Armenia from the Armenian point of 
view. The concept of this region is so unclear that many scholars 
have failed to differentiate it from Cappadocia, and even specialists 
occasionally confuse it either with Sophene, or with the later Armenian 
possessions in Cilicia, Consequently we believe that it is indispensable 
to halt over the topography of Lesser Armenia, and to establish her 
importance first as a geographical concept within the course of her 

The lands of Lesser Armenia were first included among the Roman 
provinces as a component part of Cappadocia, They remained in 
that position until the period of Diocletian at the end of the third 
century, At this time Lesser Armenia was removed to form a separate 




province 2 a , Under Theodosius tlie Great at the end of the following 
century, she was split into Armenia I and II, and at the time of Jus- 
tinian, the territories of Lesser Armenia underwent a new partition 
which they shared with the western portion of the former Greater 
Armenia. In the light of this historical development in Lesser Ar- 
menia, it is understandable that her ethnic frontiers failed to preserve 
their clarity and became blurred through contact with the neigh- 
bouring lands, Roman provincial divisions were never based on 
ethnic grounds, so that in speaking of Lesser Armenia we must take 
this term as an administrative rather than an ethnic unit, Further- 
more her administrative frontiers were often altered through con^ 
traction or expansion with regard to the adjoining provinces. 

At first Lesser Armenia formed a part of the complex of Cappadocia, 
a province composed of territories having formerly belonged to the 
minor rulers of Asia Minor. Before the inclusion of Lesser Armenia, 
Cappadocia consisted of two parts, Cappadocia proper and Pontus, In 
the first were included the lands adjoining the Taurus, so that it 
was called Cappadocia Taurica [ad Tauxum], or Greater Cappadocia. 
The second corresponded to the Pontic shore and was called Cappa- 
docia Pontica [ad Pontem], Greater Cappadocia, the inheritance of 
king Archelaus, was divided into ten districts or strategies even in 
the days of the native rulers- according to Strabo, Among these 
Melitene, Kataonia, Cilieia, Tyanitis, and Garsauritis were situated 
along the Taurus, while the other five lay higher, along the Halys 
river: Lauiansene, Sargarau-sene, Sarauene, Chamanene and Mori- 
mene, Before the transformation of the land into a Roman province, 
part of Cilieia was turned into an eleventh strategy 3 , Cappa- 
docian Pontus occupied the sea coast from Paphlagonia, i.e. the 
estuary of the Halys, to Colchis, It was separated from Cappadocia 
proper by a mountain range running parallel to the Taurus with 
Chamanene at its western end and Lauiansene at the eastern one. 
Both of these prefectures were assigned to Cappadocia 4 . 

After the dissolution of the Cappadocian kingdom, the local or 
pre-Roman divisions of the country apparently were not altered. 
Judging from the description of Ptolemy, they lasted at least up to 
the end of the second century A.D, The Pontic part of the province 
and Cappadocia proper are likewise kept separate in the Geography 
of Ptolemy, but in his time the Pontic lands had been somewhat 
reduced in the west, while Cappadocia, on the contrary, had grown 




at the expense of Lycaonia. The frontier of Pontus shifted from the 
Halys to the month of the Iris, The stretch from the Iris to the 
promontory of Herakleia was called Pontns Galatieus, from there 
to Kerasos [Cerasns] lay Pontns Polemoniacus, and fnrther east to 
Colchis, came Pontns Cappadocus 4a . 

In Galatian Pontns were found Amasia, Pydna (now Fidi), Pontic 
Eomana (now Gomenek [= Kkilkoy] near Tokat, and Sebastopolis 
(now identified with Sulusaray) at the source of the Qekerek-irmagi, 
the ancient Scylax. The Scylax, a tributary of the Iris, is separated 
from the Halys by the Qarnlibel mountains, which form the natural 
frontier between Galatia and Cappadocia. 

Ptolemy lists both Neo-Caesarea and Sebaste in Pontns Polemo- 
niacus, hence it stretched southward to the Halys on whose north 
bank stands Sebasteia-Sivas. The district of Sebasteia was called 
Kulupene, and Sebastopohs was also located there 5 . The province 
adjoining Kulupene was Kamisene, with the small settlement of 
Kamis, now Kemis, on the Halys east of Sivas, Both districts are 
known to Strabo who considers them co-terminous with the strategies 
of Greater Cappadocia: Lesser Armenia and Lauiansene 6 . Kamisene 
seems to have been a connecting district ; to the north of it lay Cappa- 
docian Pontus, to the east Lesser Armenia, consequently Lauiansene 
could adjoint her only from the south or rather the south-west. Such 
a position for Lauiansene is also supported by the indication of Strabo 
that Lauiansene was the most eastern strategy of Greater Cappadocia 
since it lay at the eastern end of the mountain range at whose other 
end lay Chamanene 6a . 

Although Ptolemy preserved the ancient division into strategies, 
in some cases, such as that of Lauiansene, he referred to districts 
completely different from those of Strabo. The latter presented his 
strategies in a given order. Of the ten listed by him, five were dis- 
posed along the slopes of the Taurus, and five along the Halys. Next 
to Lauiansene on the south lay Sargarausene along the Karmalas 
river, now the Zamantisuyu [= Yenice-irmgi]. Morimene, now 
Kochisar [§ereflikochisar], near lake Tatta [Tuz golu], stood in the 
same position with regard to Chamanene, the present Haymana kazasi 
in the vilayet of Ankara, Sarauene fell along the Halys between 
Chamanene and Lauiansene, The five mountain strategies also 
followed in order; first Melitene on the Euphrates (now Malatya), 
then Kataonia west of it, on the Pyramus river (now Jaihun cayi = 



Ceyhan nehri), with the city of Komana on the Sarus river (Saris-su 
or Gogsu nehri), beyond it Cilieia, with the city of Mazaka, first named 
Eusebeia and later Caesarea, at the foot of mount Argaeus (now 
Ereiyas dagi), and finally beyond Cilieia, Tyanitis and Garsauritis, 
as far as lake Tatta 7 . 

Ptolemy lists thirteen districts in Cappadocia: 

Armenia Minor ,.. 


Praefectura Cataoniae 
» Murimenae 

» Lauiansenae 

» Arauenes 

" Praefectnra Chamanenes 

» Sargaurasenes 

» Garsauiritidis 

» Ciliciae 

» Lycaoniae 

» Antiochianae 

» Tyanitidis " ». 

In this list only Lesser Armenia, Lycaonia and Antiochiana disagree 
with the hsting of Strabo, The last two strategies are in fact 
carved from the territory occupied by Strabo's eleventh strategy. 
The main point of divergence remains Lesser Armenia, The editors 
of Ptolemy's Geography usually isolated the description of Lesser 
Armenia with the five districts following it into a separate chapter, 
presuming that these districts were part of Lesser Armenia at that 
time. In the last critical edition, that of Miiller, this error of previous 
editors has been corrected so that Lesser Armenia is now included 
in the complex of the province of Cappadocia, but in our opinion 
the problem of the extent of Lesser Armenia has not been solved 
through this, since it involves the territorial unit and not the political 
grouping of districts, Melitene, Kataonia, Murimene, Lauiansene, 
as well as Lesser Armenia herself, might have been assigned through 
administrative subdivision to Cappadocia, and yet have remained 
simultaneously a single unit with Lesser Armenia from other points 
of view. 

Melitene, the first district listed by Strabo, is not called a strategy 
by Ptolemy, and it is unlikely that the word strategy has been omitted 
accidentally 8a . Eor Ptolemy Melitene was a part of Lesser Armenia, 
In addition to this, only Kataonia among the remaining strategies, 
corresponds in location to Strabo's district bearing the same name; 
Murimene, Lauiansene and Arauene in Ptolemy are completely 
different districts from those of Strabo, The Lauiansene and Arauene 
of Ptolemy adjoin the Euphrates, the first " irpbs fxev ra> Ev^pdr-r] " 
and the second " irapa jxzv rov Ev(f>pdr7]v ", and the settlements of 



Come, Metita, Claudia, Iuliopolis and Barzalo 81 >, which are stations 
of the Roman Itineraries on the light bank of the Euphrates between 
Melitene and Samosata, are located there 9 , According to Strabo, 
on the other hand, these provinces belonged to the system of the 
Halys river and not to that of the Euphrates 9a , The Lauiansene and 
Arauene of Ptolemy must have lain along the Euphrates, since he 
assigned to them the same degree of longitude, i.e. 71°, Kataonia 
was also contiguous with Melitene, At a later date, the part of it 
which lay on the upper course of the Pyramos river and had Plasta 
(now Elbistan) as metropolis was known as Lykandos; Armenians 
were still settled there between the ninth and the eleventh centuries 10 . 
Finally, Murimene likewise lay not far from these districts, since its 
co-ordinates (67°30'-69°20') place it east of Caesarea-Mazaka, which 
is given at 66°30\ Thus, Ptolemy puts the city of Arasaka, which 
corresponds to the modern Sereseka [Sarkisla ?] east of Caesarea and 
seven hours' journey from it, into Murimene, but he also includes 
in this district localities such as Nyssa (now Nize), the birthplace of 
the famous Church father, and Zoropassos, which is probably the 
Koropassos of Strabo, These localities indicate the true position 
of Murimene along the Halys, near Chamanene 10a , The editors who 
transferred the description of Lesser Armenia and of the districts we 
have just discussed into a separate chapter are thus right in a certain 
sense, since Ptolemy has shifted Murimene eastward, while simul- 
taneously moving Lauiansene and Arauene from the basin of the 
Halys to that of the Euphrates, near Melitene and Kataonia, and in 
the vicinity of Lesser Armenia, The removal of Lesser "Armenia 
from the complex of Cappadocia should correctly be put in a period 
subsequent to that of Ptolemy, since it took place in the time of 
Diocletian, but since the territories just discussed generally remained 
part of Lesser Armenia after this division, we may postulate that their 
unity with her had some foundation and that it had already existed 
at an earlier date, i.e. before the creation of the separate province of 
Lesser Armenia. 

The discrepancies between the descriptions of Strabo and Ptolemy 
may be due to nothing more than errors on the part of the latter. 
Strategies as administrative units must have lost their political im- 
portance after the reunion of Cappadocia to the Roman Empire. 
No longer having any political significance their interest in the 
period of Ptolemy and thereafter became purely historical; once an 



event passes into the realm of history, disagreements concerning it 
are possible and even inescapable. Ptolemy used not only the earlier 
geographical works but also various Itineraries, such as the ones 
which have reached us, for the composition of this Geography. Being 
unable to reconcile the divergent evidence of these sources, he ran an 
obvious risk of falling into errors. In addition to these indications 
we also know authoritatively that upon the separation of Lesser 
Armenia from Cappadocia, her capital was considered to be Melitene u . 
When, however, she came to be divided into Armenia I and II, not 
only Sebasteia, but also Arabissos-Yarpuz, Kukusos-Goksun and 
even Komana-§ar and Ariarathes-Azkiye [= Pinarba§i] were inclu- 
ded in her lla . 

A certain portion of territory always remained in Lesser Armenia 
as her inalienable possession whatever the circumstances and in spite 
of all variations. This may be called Lesser Armenia proprie dicta, 
Ptolemy defines it quite clearly even in the period when Lesser Armenia 
was still merged with the province of Cappadocia, and this gives us 
grounds for supposing that the population of this region was composed 
predominantly if not entirely of Armenians ni \ Ptolemy lists five 
districts under the name of Lesser Armenia in his narrower sense. 
The most northern was Orbalisene, below it came Aitulane, then 
Hairetike, still lower Orsene, and southernmost Orbisene, following 
after Orsene llc , 

The following cities along the Euphrates were found in these districts: 
Sinerba, Aziris, Dalana, Sismara, Zimara, Daseusa, and, further inland 
in the mountain region: Satala, Domana, Tapura, Nikopolis, Chorsabia, 
Charax, Dagona, Seleoberea, Kaltiorissa, Analibla, Pisingara, Godasa, 
Eudoixata, Karape, Kasara, Oromandos, Ispa, Phuphena, Axane, 
Phuphagena, Mardara, Varsapa and Orsa 12 . 

Many of these localities have vanished without trace, some of them 
are also known through ancient Eoman itineraries and road maps, 
and some have survived to our times. The Itinerarium Antonini 
and the Tabula Peutingeriana, for example, contain such a wealth 
of material on the topography of Lesser Armenia, that scholarly 
investigations on the spot would unquestionably yield brilliant re- 
sults 13 , Eor the time being however we must limit ourselves to 
written sources from which only the general direction of roads with 
their stations can be determined. The data found in these documents 
also allows us to define the territory of Lesser Armenia with greater 




precision as the space included between the end points: Sebasteia, 
Nikopolis, Satala and Melitene, Sebasteia and Melitene axe well 
known, Sivas and Malatya are important centers in Asia Minor at 
the present time and the capitals of their respective vilayets. Niko- 
polis was a city not without fame in antiquity. Founded by Pompey 
in commemoration of his victory over Mithradates, it stood on the 
bank of the Lykos. Its position is determined exactly thanks to an 
inscription containing the name of NikottoAis found at the small 
settlement of Purk near Endires 14 , Satala, the Armenian Satal lay 
north of Erzincan on the way to Trapezos, at the point where the 
village of Sadak stands to this day. Zimara, which was evidently 
an important place in antiquity, still stands on the bank of the Eu- 
phrates south of Erzincan between Kemah and Divrigi. 

All of the cities which lay along the borders of Lesser Armenia 
were connected with each other by a circuit road, so that Armenia 
lay within the network of the major military highways, This road 
ran from Sebasteia to Nikopolis, then from Nikopolis to Satala, thence 
to Zimara, from Zimara to Melitene, and so back to Sebasteia, This 
system is given as follows in the Itinemrium Antonini and the Tabula 

Itinemrium Antonini 

Tabula Peutingeriana 15 












Olotoedariza Carsat 


Dracontes Arauracos 































Ad Praetorium 





The junction points given: Sebasteia, Nikopolis, Satala and Melitene, 
are still found at present on the main road circumscribing ancient 
Lesser Armenia, thus we can say without fear of falling into great 
error that the present line of communications goes back to extreme 
antiquity. Because of their physical setting, the roads of Armenia 
and of Asia Minor in general must be taken as one of the most per- 
manent features of the country, Asia Minor is a mountainous land, 
cut in all directions by the snowy ridges of the Taurus, composed of 
deep, bottomless gorges and narrow, often completely impassable 
river valleys, so that it presents serious problems of communications. 
A road once laid out in the direction dictated by the natural conditions 
must remain unchanged in all successive periods, especially if it 
depends in some measure on human labour, 

The first posts on the line Sebasteia-Nikopolis, namely Camisa 
and Zara still exist under their ancient names of Kemis and Zara, 
the first at 30 kilometers from Sivas and the second at the same 
distance from Kemis ; both are located along the Halys (Kizil-Irmak) 
river 15a . Above Kemis and Zara, the Kose (bald) and Abes, mountains 
stretch all the way to the Euphrates. The modern paved highway 
from Zara to Endires runs along the northern slopes of these moun- 
tains, According to one of the Itineraries there is only one station, 
Dagolasso, between Zara and Nikopolis, but according to the other, 
there are three: Doganis, Megalasso, Mesorome, There were apparently 
two roads of which one followed the bank of the Halys, while the 
other diverged towards the mountains in the direction of the present 



highway at a point beyond Kamis and before Zara, Since Nikopolis 
lay somewhat south of Endires, however, it is probable that the ancient 
road did not follow the northern slopes of the Kose and Abe§ moun- 
tains, as does the modern one, but rather ran along their southern 
spurs, A number of khans or relays still preserved on these slopes 
seem to lead to the same conclusion. The first mountain relay on 
this route should be Doganis, while Megalasso should presumably 
be a station other than Dagolasso, The other road described by the 
Itinerarium Antonin% lay in the valley of the Halys, It ran along 
the bed of this river to a small mountain ridge dividing the waters 
of the Halys from those of the Lykos, or more precisely of its tributary 
the Aksar on whose bank stood the city of Nikopolis, The road 
descended to the Aksar across this ridge and followed it to Nikopolis. 
Dagolasso must have stood at the point where the road crossed over 
from the Halys to the of Nikopolis river 15l \ 

The existence of two routes is also supported by the fact that 
Ptolemy, who is familiar with Dagona, Megalassos, and Mesorome, 
places the first locality in Lesser Armenia, but the other two in Pontus 
Polemoniacus, in the region of Sebasteia 15c . The mountain range of 
the Kose and Abe§, with one end at Dagona, and the other at Niko-- 
polis, both of which belonged to Lesser Armenia, should be taken as 
the natural frontier of Lesser Armenia and Pontus, If the inter- 
mediary stations of Megalassos and Mesorome belong in Pontus, they 
must lie on the crest of that range, but no further south. In the 
opposite case, that is to say, had they been located on the river road 
described by the Itinerarium Antonini, they would have been part 
of Lesser Armenia 16 . 

According to the description of the Itinerarium Antonini, the road 
from Nikopolis to Satala divided at Olotoedama, the station following 
Nikopolis, One route followed the bank of the Lykos, while the other 
ran further south through the mountains. The first of these roads 
coincides with the one given in the Tabula Peutingeriana: 

Itinerarium Antonini — Nicopoli 24 Olotoedarisa 26 Dracontes 
24 Haza 26 Satala, 

Tabula Peutingeriana — Nicopoli 14 Galtiorissa Draconis 

13 Cunissa 10 Hassis 13 Ziziola 12 Satala 16a , 

Hassis is merely Haza in the instrumental, the case in which the 

names of the stations are usually given in the Itineraries, Cunissa 

and Ziziola were intermediary stations, the first between Draconis 



and Haza, and the second between Haza and Satala. The proof of this 
is found in the distances given between stations. According to the 
Itinerarium, there were 24 Koman miles between Draconis and Haza, 
and 26 from there to Satala, while according to the Tabula, there 
were 13 Koman miles from Draconis to Cunissa and 10 from there 
to Hassis, or a total of 23 miles as against 24 in the Iiinerarium. Tor 
the distance between Hassis and Ziziola, the Tabula gives 13 miles 
plus 12 from Ziziola to Satala, 25 miles in all, as against 26 in the 
Iiinerarium. These differences are too insignificant to be taken into 
consideration. In the case of the second station given as Olotoedama 
in one document and Caltiorissa in the other, it is evident that one 
and the same locality is meant in both cases. The reading Caltiorissa 
is not certain, and the distance of this station from Draconis is not 
given in the manuscripts 161 \ 

The second road from Nikopolis to Satala through Olotoedariza 
turned southward and followed the slopes of the mountains now called 
Qimen dagi through the following stations: 

Itin, Ant — Garsagis 24 Arauracos 24 Suissa 26 Satala 16e , 

The fact that this road served as the line of communications between 
Satala and Zimara shows that the direction given by us is correct: 

Itin. Ant — SATALA Suissa 18 Arauracos 24 Garsagis 
28 Sinerva 28 Analiba 16 Zimara ™*. 

Since the road from Satala to Nikopolis on the Lykos and to Zimara 
on the Euphrates went through the same stations: Suissa, Arauracos, 
and Garsagis or Carsat, we must assume that these stations were 
disposed between the Lykos and the Euphrates along a line parallel 
to their course, in other words, along the Qimen dagi, as we have 
already indicated. The highway from Endires to Erzincan passes 
through Gercanis [_L Kefahiye], hence, the station of Garsanis, whose 
name must be a deformation of Garsagis or Carsat, is clearly identical 
with modern Gercanis, 

The Tabula Peutingeriana does not give this road from Satala to 
Zimara, but shows two other roads which connect Zimara directly 
with Nikopolis and the neighbouring Draconis: 

NICOPOLI 21 Oleoberda 15 Caleorsissa 24 Analiba 15 
Zimara Draconis 16Haris 17 Elegarsina 8 Bubalia 27 Zimara 16e * 



The Nikopolis road probably ran along the left bank of the Ak§ar 
deresi and coincided with the present road on which we incidentally 
find the village of Solaris in the Sinibel mountains. This is the 
historical Caleor-s-issa, and it is located at the source of the Karabudak 
eayi which flows past Zimara into the Euphrates 16f . The Draconis 
road ran a little east of the former. If Elegarsina can be derived 
from the Armenian bq£q.—iunli£ " reed village" ( *eleg-aris-ina being 
the adjectival form of Elegaris), it should be connected with the 
present Kami§li dere which means " read gorge " and is consequently 
a translation of the ancient Armenian name. The Kami§h dere 
lies by the Gercanis river, which is also a tributary of the Lykos. 
The road we are seeking mast have followed this stream, and it is 
very likely that Draconis stood on the site of Hapul-kopru, at the 
point where the Gercanis empties into the Lykos 16 s. The next station, 
Bubalia, belonged in the region of Daranahk', in the vicinity of Ana- 
libla or Analibna, as is indicated by its name 17 . 

The following stations stood along the Euphrates between Zimara 
and Melitene: 

Itin. Ant — Zimara 16 Teucila 26 Sabus 16 Dascusa 32 Ciaca 
18 Meliterie, 

Tab, Pent — Zimara 18 Zenocopi 18 Vereuso 13 Saba 
18 Dascusa 18 Hispa 18 Arangas 9 Ciaca 28 (18) Meletensis 17a . 

Both documents present in fact one and the same road. The 
more important points on this road at present are Divrigi, Egin, 
Arapkir, Arguvan, as well as §epik and Egin. The cross roads toward 
Malatya run through them. In 1868 an investigator discovered the 
traces of a road dating from the Roman period in the Sarieicek 
mountains between Divrigi and Arapkir 18 . Not far from Divrigi, 
at the point where the Caltisuyu empties into the Euphrates, there 
is a khan or rest house called Urumya, which is unquestionably a 
relay of Byzantine or even Boman origin 18a , The road from Zimara 
probably came down from the mountains already mentioned to this 
spot, and then continued past Arapkir and Arguvan towards Melitene, 
More precise indications as to the disposition of the stations do not 
exist. Teucila (for Teucira from *Teurica), may perhaps be connected 
with Divrigi, the Armenian Tevrik, the Byzantine Tephrike 19 . Sabus 
seems to coincide with §epik, a little north of Arapkir. Dascusa 
belongs in the vicinity of Egin on the Angu river, where a bridge with a 



Byzantine inscription has been preserved to this day 19a . Hispa stood 
on the site of Sarayeik. Arangas is reminieent of Arguvan, the Argaun 
of Byzantine authors 30 . Ciaca or Craea is perhaps to be associated 
with Qermik on the bank of the Euphrates 21 , Siniscolon is a town 
in Melitene, probably the modern Sinikli, on the bank of the Euphrates 
near Keban-Maden, 

The ancient road from Melitene to Sebasteia mast have coincided 
with the modem one. The stations ennumerated in the Itinemrium 
Antonini may be identified with the more or less familiar stops on 
this road. For example : Pisonos = Hasanbatrik, Ad praetorium = 
Hasancelebi, Aranis = Alacahan, Euspoena = Delikta§, Blandos = 
Takhtuk [Tutmae] 22 . The road follows the course of the Kuril 
^ayi, breaks through the Teeer mountains, and follows a small 
stream to Sivas. Of these stations, Aranis and Euspoena were 
still known in the tenth century. In 906, Eustathios Argyros was 
driven out of Charsiane. He apparently tried to flee to the Arabs, 
preferring treason to exile, but was poisoned by his companions at 
Aranis and buried at Spunios 33 , Aranis, in the form Arane, is also 
mentioned by Ptolemy among the cities of Lesser Armenia 23a . The 
small settlement of Giinduz exists not far from the station of Takhtut. 
Unless Giinduz is a Turkish word, it may perhaps be connected with 
the Gundusa of the Itinemrium, the Godasa of Ptolemy, Gundusa 
stood on the road from Zara to Tonosa: 

Itin, Ant, 
Tonosa 2 ^, 

Zara 18 Eumeis 30 Gundusa 23 Zoana 25 

Tonosa is the present Tonus at the foot of the similarly named Kara- 
tonus mountain south of Sivas. The position of Giinduz corresponds 
to that of the historical Gundusa. 

The lines of communications connecting the stations which we 
have been investigating are simultaneously the boundary lines of 
Lesser Armenia. "We know authoritatively that Dagona on the 
Sebasteia-Nikopolis road was included in Lesser Armenia. On the 
line Nikopolis-Satala, the station of Haza remained beyond the confines 
of Lesser Armenia and was part of Cappadocian Pontus, according 
to Ptolemy, though Pliny took it as belonging in Lesser Armenia 
together with Nikopolis 24 . It evidently lay on the frontier line and 
was, therefore, attributed now to Pontus and now to Armenia. On 
the side of Melitene, Dascusa and Ispa were listed by Ptolemy together 



with the cities of Lesser Armenia, while Ciaea, and by association 
Siniscolon (Sinikli) was assigned to the strategy of Melitene 24 a , On the 
line Melitene-Sebasteia, the station of Aranis remained in Armenia, 
as did Godasa-Gundusa. Hence, Lesser Armenia, in its narrower 
or Ptolemaic sense, included in the north the basin of the 
Lykos-Kelkit river from its source to Nikopolis, and the "upper course 
of the Halys-Kiziil irmak to Semis; in the south she included the 
entire system of the xiver of Divrigi, called the *Kangal su, ox the 
Qaltisuyu, The Kuxu cayi alxeady belonged in the pxefectiixe of 
Melitene, at least in its lowex course. Of the five districts into which 
Lessex Armenia was divided, the noxthexn one, Oxbalisene lay along 
the Lykos; the next two, Aitulane and Haixetike, adjoined the Halys, 
one on the xight and the othex on the left side ; Oxsene and Oxbisene 
occupied the xegion of the Kangal xivex, pxobably one to the noxth 
and the othex to the south, 

The town of Oxsa in Lessex Axmenia, which scholaxs have incoxxectly 
identified with Osdaxa, was unquestionably an impoxtant locality 
in Oxsene, and gave its name to the entixe pxovince. The Byzantine 
theme of Chaxsianon pxobably also owed its name to Oxsene, This 
theme took its name from the foxtxess of Chaxsianon (Kaarpov 
Xapviavov) found in it but whose location remains unknown, despite 
an unsuccessful attempt to connect this foxtxess with Kaxissa, Gaxsi, 
not fax from Amasia 25 , Pxom the indications found in Byzantine 
souxces, it is evident that Chaxsianon stood not fax from Hypsele, since 
audacious Arab xaids xeached as fax as the foxtxesses of Chaxsianon and 
Hypsele 2S , Hypsele [Ipsile], its name unchanged, still stands to one 
side of the highway to Endixes, noxth of Kernis and Zaxa, The village 
of Hoxsana, with an Axmenian population, exists on the left bank of the 
Halys between Sivas and Kemis, and must unquestionably be the 
historical Xap&tavov 27 . Accoxding to the evidence of Axab geogxa- 
phexs, Chaxsianon lay one day's journey from Kemis, a fact which 
supports oux identification 38 , Thexe is no need to dexive Hoxsana 
from the Oxsa of Ptolemy although thexe is no obstacle to this, Oxsa 
is mentioned by Ptolemy in connexion with Vaxsapa, and he locates 
both places in Lessex Axmenia 28a , Some scholaxs have attempted 
to identify Vaxsapa with- Axabissos [Yaxpuz], othexs coxxect the name 
into Saxsapa and equate it with the Byzantine Sapaairiov, a foxtxess 
in Lykandos-Albistene on the bank of the pxesent Saxsap dexesi, neax 
Axabissos, As fox Oxsa, they think it may be identified with Osdaxa, 
one of the stations on the xoad from Melitene to Kukusos-Goksiin 38l:) . 



Itin. Ant — Melitena 26 Areas 24 Dandaxina 24 Osdara 
24 Ptandari 38 Coeuso 28c . 

Areas [Arga] still exists west of Malatya, Ptandari has correctly 
been located at Tanir north of Yarpuz, Dandaxina and Osdara must 
lie between these two points, Osdara is usually associated with the 
Arslanta§, which are cliffs bearing the representation of two lions, 
in the vicinity of Darende, the ancient Taranta 28d . Both the identifi- 
cations of Varsapa and Orsa are unsatisfactory. Ptandari corres- 
ponds to the Tandaris of Ptolemy, a city in Kataonia and the Axslanta§ 
and Sarsapa he within the boundaries of Kataonia and Melitene, 
whereas Orsa and Varsapa are mentioned among the cities of Lesser 
Armenia in the narrower sense of the term, Hence, even if Sarsapa 
is a possible reading for Varsapa, it would still be more justifiable 
to identify it with the village of Sarsap on the Kuru §ayi above the 
khan of Hasanbatrik, As for Orsa, it is undoubtedly a locality in 
Orsene, whether or not we accept its identification with the modern 
village of Horsana, From a topographical point of view, Horsana 
is more suitable to Orsa, a city in Lesser Armenia, than Osdara which 
lay outside this territory. 

Despite their lack of precision in the location of stations, the general 
information on the topography of Armenia found in the Itin&rarium 
Antonini and the Tabula Peutingeriana gives the outline of Lesser 
Armenia jproprie dicta with such clarity that it precludes the possibility 
of such incorrect identifications as Arapkir-Mpa^Spa/c^ or Ovapaaira- 
*Apaf$iooo$ 29 , Such errors stem from the failure to define Lesser 
Armenia with sufficient clarity in either the narrow or the broad 
sense of the term, In other words, Lesser Armenia as a part of 
Cappadocia, and Lesser Armenia as an independent province are 
different territorial units. 

The separation of Lesser Armenia from the complex of Cappadocia 
belongs to the period of Diocletian. Major transformations in the 
administrative structure of the provinces are attributed to him. 
According to the words of one of his contemporaries, dissatisfied 
with the reform, "the provinces were splintered to bits and not only 
the provinces but also the cities themselves were weighed down with 
a multitude of governors and officials 30 ". 

Id 1862 an interesting document, the so called Verona List of Roman 
provinces entitled Nomina Provinciarum Omnium in the manuscript 
was discovered 30a , The editor's critical work has shown that the 



internal content of this listing of provinces places it in 297, i.e. at the 
very end of the third century. Hence the Verona List presumably 
reflects the reforms of Diocletian 31 . According to this list, the entire 
Empire was divided into twelve dioceses, two of which contained the 
Asiatic border provinces. These were the dioceses of Oriens and of 
Pontica, The diocese of Pontica consisted of seven provinces, among 
which we find Lesser Armenia : 

Diocensis Pontica habet provincias numero VII 




Paphlagonia, nunc in duas divisa 


Pontus Polemoniacus 

Armenia minor, nunc et maior addita 31a . 

The twelve dioceses taken as a whole add up to 95 provinces, though 
the Koman Empire at the accession of Diocletian numbered only 
57 provinces, having been increased by 15 provinces since the time 
of Trajan. Of the 38 new provinces (95-57), the creation of 15 pro- 
vinces, most of them in Asia, can be attributed with certainty to 
Diocletian. Lesser Armenia belongs among them 32 , 

There is another document of the same type as the Verona List, 
namely the Laterculus of Polemius Silvius, Although its author, 
Polemius Silvius, lived in the first half of the fifth century and wrote 
the work, as he states, in the consulship of Zeno and Posthumius 
(i.e. 448 A.D.), the content of the Laterculus goes back to a much 
earlier period. According to Mommsen, it was composed no later 
than 386, since certain provinces already existing in that year are 
still missing from the document 33 , According to the listing of the 
Laterculus, there were' 8 provinces in the diocese of Pontus: 

in Ponto VIII 

1. Pontus Polemoniacus 

2. Pontus Amasia 

3. Honoriada 

4. Bithinia 

5, Paflagonia 

7. Armenia minor [sic] 

6. Armenia maior 

8. Cappadocia 33a . 

Pontus Amasia, i.e. the part of Pontus containing the city of Amasia, 
is equivalent to the Diospontus of the Verona List It was rechristened 
Helenopontus at the time of Constantine the Great in honour of his 



mother Helen 34 , Honoriada, taken primarily from the territory 
of Bithynia, was created by Theodosius I in honour of his son Honorius, 
probably on the occasion of the child's birth in 384 35 , 

In contradiction to historical reality, Greater Armenia is included 
among these provinces alongside of Lesser Armenia, but the irregu- 
larity in the numbering: 

Septima: Armenia minor 
Sexta: Armenia maior 

reveals the inaccuracy of the list which has reached us. Some scholars 
believe that the reference here is to Armenia I and II, which might 
well have been called Lesser and Greater Armenia by the author of 
the Laterculus since Armenia II was considerably larger than Ar- 
menia 1 36 , However, such an interpretation fails to explain the 
transposition of the numbers. In our opinion, this transposition 
is to be attributed to the fact that Galatia has been omitted in Pole- 
mius' list. In the Verona List and the later Noiitia Dignitatum, 
Galatia was included in the diocese of Pontus, but in the Laterculus 
it has been shifted into the diocese of Asia 36a , perhaps because it was 
temporarily ruled by the same governor as the neighbouring Heleno- 
pontus at the time of composition of the Laterculus. Whatever 
its explanation, the transfer of Galatia clearly brought about the 
transposition we have observed in the listing of the provinces, The 
two lists are very much alike ; the author of the Laterculus followed 
a source similar to the Verona List. But in the latter document 
the note " nunc et maior addita ", was inserted after Armenia minor, 
and this note has been incorporated into the Laterculus, When 
Galatia was dropped for some reason from the Laterculus, and the 
number of provinces consequently reduced to seven, instead of the 
eight indicated in the title, Greater Armenia was added as a separate 
province to fill the blank. In doing this, Greater Armenia was kept 
after Lesser Armenia, as it had been in the note of the Verona List, 
but the number of Galatia in the Laterculus, i.e. " sexta ", was allotted 
to her, The original text of the Laterculus must, therefore, have 
had the following form: 

in Ponto VIII 

1. Pontus Polemoniacus 

2. Pontus Amasia 

3. Honoriada 

4. Bithinia 

5, Paflagonia 

[6, Galatia] 

7. Armenia minor nunc et maior 

8. Cappadocia, 




It is possible of course to question the authenticity of the note " nunc 
et maior " in the Verona List, but even if it should prove to be an 
interpolation, it must be a very ancient one since it was already 
known to the author of the Laterculus* Both the Verona List and 
the Laterculus date from a period when great changes were taking 
place in the history of Armenia. It is true that the doubtful note 
referring to Greater Armenia is historically inaccurate, but it may 
be an echo in the Verona List of the political events of 298, when the 
throne of the Armenian Arsacids shaken by the Sasanians had been 
restored once again in Greater Armenia thanks to Koman support. 
From that time Armenia had come into the sphere of Imperial influence 
or, as Ammianus Mareellinus puts it, she became, "juri Romano 
obnoxia " 37 , and benefited from the protection of the Eomans. The 
note in the Verona List was taken over by Polemius Silvius because 
it agreed with the situation found in his own time, i,e, with the division 
of Armenia at the end of the fourth century into two portions, one 
of which was annexed by the Roman Empire. 

The newly created province of Lesser Armenia was represented as 
a separate administrative unit at the Council of Mcaea of 325 on a 
par with Greater Armenia, Cappadocia. and the remaining neigh- 
bouring provinces 37a . In 371 the emperor Valens split Cappadocia 
into halves, Cappadocia I and II 38 , Armenia II, with the cities of 
Komana and Ariaratheia, is mentioned for the first time together 
with Cappadocia II and Helenopontus in a decree of Theodosius the 
Great 39 . We might reasonably suppose that the division of Lesser 
Armenia took place at the same time as that of Cappadocia, that is 
to say in 371, but this hypothesis is contradicted by the fact that 
Ammianus, whose History goes to AJD, 378, speaks of only one Lesser 
Armenia and seems to know her as a single unit 40 . At the Council 
of Constantinople of 381, Lesser Armenia was still represented as an 
undivided unit, as was Cappadocia, though the division of the latter 
had taken place ten years earlier. The ecclesiastical hierarchy had 
apparently not had time to adjust itself to the new situation, and 
Cappadocia remained a single province from the point of view of 
the Church 41 , St, Basil the Great protested against the division of 
Cappadocia which he thought foolish. As he commented sharply: 

.„ what they have done is about the same as if a man possess- 
ing a horse or an ox, should divide it into two parts, and consider 
that he had two animals instead of the one he had. For he 
has not created two and he has destroyed the one 4a , 



The discontent of the country which found a spokesman in Saint 
Basil may perhaps have delayed indirectly the reorganization of 
Lesser Armenia. Since we find an explicit reference to Armenia II 
in 386, as we have already noted, we must presume that the intention 
of Valens was carried out by his successor Theodosius I in the period 
between 378 and 386, Lesser Armenia was then split into the two 
provinces of Armenia I and II, The first was composed of the district 
of Sebasteia, with the cities of Nikopolis, Koloneia, Satala, Sebas- 
topolis, and Berisse, in addition to its capital of Sebasteia. In Ar- 
menia II were found Melitene, Arka, Arabissos, Kukusos, Komana, 
and Ariaratheia. The province of Pontus Polemoniacus, adjoining 
Armenia I, occupied the district of the cities of Neo-Caesarea, Komana 
(Pontica), Polemonion, Kerasos, and Trapezos 43a . 

Ecclesiastical geography provides us with most of the data con- 
cerning the territory of the newly created provinces, because eccle- 
siastical divisions were characterized by a relatively high degree of 
stability, These divisions probably correspond to the administrative 
map of the period of Theodosius I, and they maintained themselves 
unchanged thereafter, successfully avoiding the provincial alterations 
of Justinian. The information of George of Cyprus who wrote in 
the seventh century agrees with the geographical material of the 
fifth century Conciliar Lists, as can be seen from the tables given 
below 421 \ After the Council of Chalcedon, the emperor Leo sent an 
enquiry to all the eparchies as a result of the riots which had broken 
out in Alexandria. The answers of the eparchies with the signatures 
of the incumbents have survived to our times 42e , Armenia I and II 
are more fully represented in them than in the protocols of the Council 
of Chalcedon. For this reason, we give the data of these answers 
in tabular form: 

Ad Leonem 
{A.D. 453) [sic] 34 

L Sebastia 

2, Nicopolis 

5, Colonia 

6. Satala 

3, Sebastopolis 

4, Varissa 

{ca. 530) 


Georgius Cyprius 
(VII C.) 






Sebasteia 43a 

Nikopolis 43b 








1, Melitena 


Melitene 43c 

2, Area 



3, ArabissTis 


Arabissos 43d 

4. [Cucusus] 



5, [Comana] 


Keomana 43e 




Axmenias I and II taken together were larger than the former 
Lesser Armenia. This addition took place primarily at the time if 
the partition, since Koloneia was still considered part of Cappadocia 
in 381, as attested by the list of fathers present at this Council, though 
a partial increase had already occured, as we have shown, at the time 
of Lesser Armenia's separation from Cappadocia. Lesser Armenia 
remained in this new form until the period of Justinian. 


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PL Patrologiae cursus completus. Series laiina, Migne, J.P. ed. (Paris, 1844- 

PO Patrologia Orientalise Graff in, K, and Nau, !F, edd. (Paris, 1903). 

PP La Parola del Passaio, Bivista di Studi Classid (Naples). 

PS Palestinskil Sbornik (Moscow). 

PW BeaVencyclopadie der classischen Aliertumsurissenschaft, Pauly, A., Wisso- 



wa, G., and Kroll, W. edd, (Vienna, 1837-1852). New edition (Stuttgart, 

REA Bevue des Etudes Arminiennes (Paris, 1920-1932). New series (Paris, 

REAnc Bevue des Etudes Anciennes (Bordeaux). 
REB Bevue des Etudes Byzantines (Paris), 

REIE Bevue des JJJtudes Indo-JSuropeennes. 

RH Bevue Historique (Paris). 

RHE Bevue d'JBistoire Ecclesiastique (Lou vain). 

RHR Bevue de VHisioire des Beligions (Paris), 

ROC Bevue de VOrient Chretien (Paris), 

RSJB Becueils de la Societi Jean Bodin (Paris). 

S Syria (Paris). 

SAW Sitzungsberichie der philologisch-historische Classe der kaiserlichen Akademie 

der Wissenschaften (Vienna). 
SBAWM Sitzungsberichte der bayerischen Ahademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen, 
SI A Studia Instituti Anthropos (Vienna). 

SMM SaFarfvelos Muzeume Moambe (Tbilisi), 

SV Sovetshoe Vostokovedenie (Moscow). 

T Traditio (New York), 

USAEM USAF Aeronautical Approach Chart (St. Louis, 1956-1958). 
UZL Uchennye Zapiski Leningradskogo Universiteta. 

VBAG Verhandlungen der berlinischen anthropohgischen Qesellschafi* 

VDI Vestnik Drevnel Istorii (Moscow). 

VI Voprosy Istorii (Moscow). 

VIA Voprosy lazykoznaniia (Moscow), 

W Vizantilskil Vremmenik (St. Petersburg, 1894-1928). N.S, (Leningrad, 

WZKM Wiener Zeitschrift filr die Kunde des Morgenlandes, 
ZDMG Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft (Leipzig). 

ZE Zeitschrift fur Mthnologie, 

ZKO Zapishi Klassicheskago Otdeleniia Imperatorskago Busskago Arkheologi- 

cheskago Obshchestva (St. Petersburg). 
ZMNP Zhurnal Ministerstva Narodnago Prosveshcheniia (St. Petersburg). 

ZNW Zeitschrift fur neutestamentliche Wissenschaft, 

ZVO Zapiski Vostochnago Otdeleniia Imperatorskago Busskago Arkheologicheskago 

Obshchestva (St. Petersburg). 
ZVS Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. 





i Proeopms, Aed., XXI, i, 17 [L. VII, 182/3], 

" t<x fiev odv ap.<j>i rff [leydXTj KaXovjiivr) *App,€p(a BitpKyvaro SBe, ttj 8e aXXr) y App,zvia, 
TJ7r$p ivTos Ev<f>p6,Tov iroTafxov odua BwqKzi is "Ap,iBav ttqXw, aarpdirai i<j><ziQTrJK<-iuav *Apjihioi 
nhm, ... ". (29, 1) 

2 CJ I, 29, 5, "De officio magistri rnllitxim ". [See Appendix IB], Nov. XXXI 
[See Appendix I], This is the reading given in the new Tenbner edition Nov. XXXI = 
Const. XLV, Other editions give this passage as, " Tlo^avTprq re /cat *Avb)T7)vi) y 
Ttpij>mn) koX > Aa9iavr)V7} 77 kcu Bakafivrqvri ". The 17 linking Anzetene and Sophene is 
completely ont of place and is probably derived from the final -77 of the preceding word. 
The same is true of the ^ /ecu preceding Balabitene, where the separation of the rj is 
even clearer. Some scholars propose koI 17 in place of 77 /ecu (Cf. Giiterbock, Arm,, 
p, 30 n, 3), bnt there is no reason to isolate Balabitene by means of the article when the 
other provinces lack this. It is interesting to note that the reading suggested by ns, 
is found in one of the early editions of the Novellae, G, Haloander, iVeapcDv 'Iovarmavov 
fiamAiws ... fiifiXiov, Nuremberg, 1531. GJ VII, 63, 5, " De temporibns, et repara- 
tionibns, appellationnm sen consultationum ". (29, 2) 

2a [See above, chapter I, pp. 16,20-21 and nn. 26-27, 39.] 

3 tywjjjL < Pwjnj (so. giuqiug or ^nijjim), it is called K&arpov Ba{Xov)Xovos by 
Georg. Cypr., p, 49. [See also, Markwart, Sudarmenien, pp. *14, n. 2, 240, etc., and 
Honigmann, Ostgrenze, pp. 31-32, 90-91, etc.] (30, 1) 

4 Agaf. exiv, p. 600, derives the name of the city, Qw^mfewm &om jui-^mfiij wkijjpg 
— "the place of offering", "**+np hi. whm.whkm^ pum jur^tufumu^m^mwSwh 
mhqhwgh Qw^mji^ww, ** bnt this interpretation cannot be taken seriously. Xfmhmj 
another name for the village of fl^b also in Asthianene, should perhaps also be linked 
with Astisat (where sat is the ancient equivalent of sdhr). [On Astisat, see also, Mark- 
wart, Siidarmenien, pp. 288 sqq. etc.]. (30, 2) 

5 StTaOQ, XII, ii, 1 [L. V, 350/1], " (MgAittjvtJ) ... avTiKZira Se T77 Hoojyqvfj, jueow l^outxa 
Tov Ev<f>pa,T7}v TTorafjiov ". Ibid., XI, xii, 4[L. V, 298/9], " ...Tavpos, Biopifav ttjv Swjyrivrjv 
/ecu ttjv aXfojv 'Appeviav cwro rrjs MevoTTOTajAias ... iv Bk tovtqis /ecu to Mduiov, to virep- 
KstflGvov tt}s Nitriftios opos koi t<x>v TiypavoKtpTwv '\ Ibid., XI, xii, 3 [L, V, 296/7], 
" apwrspa, §e ttjv 'AkiXiutjvtjv /ecu Uco^>7)vt}v rrjs fi^ydXjjs 9 App,m>ias ", on Karkathiokerta: Ibid,. 
XI, xiv, 3 [L. V, 320/1], " BamXeiov 8e rrjs Stotfarfjs KapKadioKepra" . Pliny OT, YI, 26 
[L. II, 356/7], " ... proximnm, Tigri Carcathioeerta ", [See also, Manandian, Trade, 
pp. 33-35], (31, 1) 

5 * [FB, V, vii, "jtylipph Vnijtw^ ft phutpkii phpqfjh. " 
Ibid., Ill, xii, " Pbiuphfi pkpq£h wpgnLhjf Jfkb tympiug qutLmnfth. "] 

6 Georg. Oypr., p. 47, " Kaarpov Bava^ijAwv 5J . Joh, Eph,, de beatis, i, p, 3, " Habib 
,„ e regione Sopheniornm orinndns, .,, Erat natus in vico exu nomen est Pitar ", Ibid., 
xliv, p. 149 " ... in monasterio sacro Pitarensi .., " fonnd according to the context in 
" ... terra Sopheniorum ", in which were also found the village of Beth-Rtunmantha, 
Idem, and the locality called (Jurtha, Ibid., vi, p, 41, [Of. Honigmann, Ostgrenze, pp. 8, 
35], The name of Eittar or Phittur can no longer be fonnd, bnt G 46, p, 89 gives Benabil 
37°19 , JN' X 40°51E, and Derik, in whose vicinity Honigmann placed Phitar, is still 
the head of a Jcaza, G 46, p. 183 (1)], (31, 2) 



7 Joh. Eph., de beatis, xxxi, p, 122, " ... in Anzitene Urtaeomm ". Ibid,, lviii, 
p. 184, " ... in finibus TJrtaeorum in agro Anziteno ". Ibid,, p. 182, Mar Johannes ... 
[quod Amidae est] ... ut sermonem quoque TJrtaeorum ealleret ... Urtaens putatus et 
voeatus est, licet genere penitus Syrus esset ", Cf, Noldeke, Zwei V biker, p. 163. 
[Cf. Honigmann, Eveches, p. 236]. (31, 3) 

8 Ptolemy, V, xii, p, 945, st ... *Ev Se ra ... fi€G€fj,fipiva>T4pu> rprjpaTi ptragv jikv 
Evt/>pdrov Kal rcov TiypiBos TTTjyvbv rj tc 'Av&ttjvt} ... ". (32, 1) 

9 Kiepert, Landschaflen, p. 197, et al. Taylor, Kurdistan, p. 43 in his description 
of the tipper Ziban, " ... this part of the Diarbekir Pashalik was a few years ago known 
by the name of Khanchoot, a corruption of the old name Handsith ", he also refers 
here to the Arab historian Ibn-al-Athir. This opinion was apparently taken into 
consideration in the determination of the location of Anzitene. [Cf. also on the problem 
of the two Anjits, Markwart, Sudarmenien, *41, 20, 58 sqq., 67-75, etc.; Honigmann, 
Ostgrenze, pp. 70-72, 76, 90-92 etc.; Honigmann, Bomanopolis, pp. 92-93, et passim; 
Eremyan, Armenia, p. 36]. (32, 2), 

10 Joh. Eph., de beatis, ix, p. 49 " Beatus Maras clericus in ecclesia vici hand exigui 
in partibus Anzitenes, qui Hula vocatur, „. ". Ibid., xlii, p. 147. In this province 
were likewise found the villages of Paradisus ( — mmpmltj), Ibid., viii, p. 45, " ... in 
monasterio vici qui Paradisus vocatur, ad fines Armeniae siti in regione Anzitene ", 
and Nanas, Ibid,, xxxi, p. 122, "... in Anzitene TJrtaeorum ... in vico qui Nanas vocatur, " 
but their location is unknown, (32, 3) 

11 Cuinei, II, p. 352. (32, 4) 
na [Til enzit is probably to be identified with the modern village of Til — 38°49'N x 

39°18'E, G 46, p. 598 (4). Cf. Markwart, Sudarmenien, p. 342, and Honigmann, Ost- 
grenze, pp. 71-72, 90 also Eremyan, Armenia, p. 36, " JXhkjip " whose location of Til NE 
of Harput agrees with the above coordinates.] 

n*> [Ptolemy, V, xii, pp. 945-946. Arm, Geogr,, pp. 30/41.] 

is MU, cvi, pp. 247-251, " \4>p{wnmnu] h\hui^ phw^wL fi W^mph (248) — 
[fonnbfjlf] ywjp [j tfiuuiq^^ni-p (249)-* fi jU^nL^uim gwqwgh [Zwjnij ^nqwLJ, 
hi. jUipipLuu ij.m^injih ^mhqfiuikgwh qopgh tpfuwnuinujih (250)'" hi. [^/"/ 
nuwufi] qbwij ifuufumnwljwh"* fi Jtfiuppbpq : Qju kqfsL Ji Zwb&fip qwminjib 
[j jlXipipim qw^infib ." [The passages in brackets are found in the text, but were 
left out by Adontz in his quotation thereof]. (33, 1) 

i 2a [Tab, Peut, pp. 738-739 and map 238, p. 738. The Belhan mountains, found 
in Lynch, Map and Kiepert Karte CV have vanished from modern nomenclature]. 

13 Hubschmann, Ortsnamen, p. 301, and Kiepert, Katie, are probably mistaken in 
their identification of Mazara with the city of Mezere near Xarberd. The main difficulty 
is that Mezere is a very recent foundation, having been founded by emigrants from 
Zarberd, According to Cuinei, II, pp, 350 sqq., " [Kharpout] par sa position meme 
sur une montagne escarpee, Tinsuffisance des eaux qui peuvent servir a son approvision- 
nement, Tetroitesse de ses rues et leur encombrement durant l'hiver ... la cherte du bois 
... a eesse* de plaire a la population qui Ta petit a petit abandonne pour aller se fixer 
dans la plaine, a peu de distance de la, ou tous ces inconvenients n'existaient pas. 

... C'est a cet abandon qu'est due la fondation de la petite ville nouvelle de Mezre, 
institute definitivement chef-lieu du vilayet de Mamouret-ul-Aziz, vers la fin du regne 
du sultan Abdul-Aziz ... (355) ... sous son predecesseur, le sultan Abdul-Medjid, le grand- 
vizir, (356) .... En ... (1834) „. s'empressa d'envoyer a Mezre un nouveau go'wverneur .„ 



Enfin sous le regne du sultan Abdul-Aziz, un vali kurde envoye de Constantinople, ,., 
l'embellit et Fagrandit encore, et ehangea son nom de Mezre, coiruption de 1'arabe 
Mezrea qui signifie 'Cultures', en eelui de 'Mamouret-ul-Aziz, c'est-a-dire 'ville rendue 
prospere par Aziz' ". [Adontz in paraphrasing the above quotation which we have 
pub back in the original, mistakenly gives the date 1834 as that of the re-naming of 
Mezre, and omits a reference to Cuinet's etymology]. In opposition to Hubsehmann's 
warning, Ortsnamen, p. 301 n. 1, that Mezere is " ,., zu untersehieden von dem haufigen 
Namen Mazre — Arab.-Turk, mezre'e 'Ackerfeld* ", we believe that the name of Mezere 
should be derived from this very word. Mezre, the Arab <Uj\^ " arable land " has a 
sense similar to that oiyayla " summer pasturage ", and MsMa " winter pasturage " and 
should be associated with autumn. The position of Mezere in the plain makes of it a 
mezre'e in comparison with the mountainous .Xarberd, [Cf, Honigmann, Ostgrenze, 
p. 36 n. 4], {33, 2) 

14 Goleuk dULp " small lake " has an area of 50 square kilometers and a depth 
of 70-90 meters. Cuinei, II, p. 339. The castle with the same name as the lake is 
mentioned by Matt'eos "Ufhaeei, MV, celxxxi, p, 544, " ***fi pkpnh ^u/^n^^nu^ 
np l^n^ji X?n*l"* The castle probably stood on the island on which a small Armenian 
village is still to be found, Incicean, Geography, p. 240 [Eremyan, Armenia, pp. 36, 56]. 

(34, 1) 

15 The reading OjJ^ for OjUa> Xare-bert, Arm. * fuwpl — p^P 1 } * s P er " 
missible unless the Muslim Hart-bert < Arm, * Jump («?) — f^pty which is also 
possible. Cf, the castle of Hart [Charton] in Tzanika [see below, Chapter III, pp. 49,51, 
oho Honigmann, Ostgrenze, j>j>. 70-72, etc.], (34, 2) 

16 Polyb*, YIII, xxiii [L. Ill, 504/5], " 'Apaapoaara, -q Kstrm irpos rai KaXa> 7reSi(p 
KoAovfiwa), pifjov Ev^parov kqi TiyptBos ". Cf, MTJ, cvi, p. 250, " „.jU^iJL^mm ... jj 
jJXjkipLiu q.w£mjih, ** Elsewhere in the same work, Ibid,, cexxxvi, p. 443, u ... quiuh [i 
^mh^pp qwLiunh. ktjm^nL ( ?) nrfitpu njndmp pkpqu hjmppkpqnj ", This passage 
obviously refers to the same Aleluya JXjplpLjm, so that jw^il should be read j«/^/u. 
The Mss, used by Incicean, Description, p. 50, contained the variant U^fjnur. ^ 
seems to us that the forms uijim^ wjhipL, wjpt (in Turkish lands vfoi jjj I) occur 
in connexion with Hula, JM-vank\ The 'lAe-yepSa listed by Plot, V, xii, p, 946 as 
a city of Anzitene may also be related to them. [Markwart, SMarmenien, p. 478 and 
Honigmann, Ostgrenze, pp. 93, 123 n. 115], (34, 3) 

17 Pliny, NH, VI, x, 26 [L. II, 356/7], " ... in Majore [Armenia] Arsamosata Euphrati 
proximum ". MTJ, cvii, p. 251, " «•♦ fi phpn.u fup jJlySm^iuw gwqiug np jj 
jlXpbunj fopivj. " Ibn Serapion, pp. 11/54 [Cf, Le Strange " notes " to Ibid,, p. 57], 
Ibn Khurdadhbih, p. 125. Le Strange, Lands, pp. 116-117], 

[A. Yasiliev, in his " Review " of Adontz, ZMNP, (1910), pp. 415-416, took him to 
task for this entire section of his work in which he confused Samosata (Sumaysat) and 
Arsamosata (Shamushat or Shimshat). The objection is undoubtedly well taken in 
that Adontz speaks of both Arsamosata (p. 34 et sqq. of the Russian text) and Samosata 
(p, 35 of the same text) in discussing the passages of Ibn Serapion referring to the city 
of Shamushat (pp. 11/54 and 30-31/314), whereas in his comment on another passage 
of Ibn Serapion, now referring to the city of Sumaysat (Ibid., pp. 10/47), Adontz gives 
to this city the curious name of " Syrian Arsamosata " (p. 37 of the Russian text). 
This confusion is all the more curious in that Le Strange, both in his comment of the text 



of Ibn Serapion used hy Adontz, J HAS, (1895), pp. 49, 57, and in Lands, pp, 116-117, 
likewise consulted by Adontz, repeatedly warns against this very mistake, Never- 
theless, Adontz's mistake does not spread beyond the terminology, and may be due to 
no more than insufficient proof-reading. He locates Arsamosata in the vicinity of 
Xarberd and Balu in agreement with most scholars. As for the confusion of names, 
it has a long history, since Le Strange traces his caveat against it as far back as Yakut, 
JJRAS, p. 57, and it has since been repeated by most modern scholars. On the two 
cities and their position, see also Markwart, Sildarmenien, pp. *38-40, 240-265, etc.; 
Honigmann, Osigrenze, pp. 71-73, 75-78 and 78 n. 4, 136 n, 5, etc., Bomanopolis, passim; 
Manandian, Trade, pp, 33-35. The confusion seems to persist in Eremyan, Armenia, 
p. 73]. (35, 1) 

17a ]ji n Serapion, pp. 30-31/314.] 

18 Tacitus, Ann. XV, x, [L. IV, 230/1], "... tria milia delecti peditis proximo Tauri 
iugo imposuit, ... equitatus, in parte campi locat. Coniunx ac filius castello, cui 
Arsamosata nomen est, abditi ", Ibid., XV, xv [L. IV, 238/9], "Interim flumini Arsaniae 
(is castra praefluebat) pontem imposuit ". (36, 1) 

!8a [Ibid., XV, xi, xiii [L. IV, 232/3-236/7]. It is clear from Tacitus' account that 
the place besieged by Vologaesus I was Paetus' camp on the bank of the Euphrates, 
and not the city of Arsamosata. There is no indication in the account of the distance 
separating the camp from the city.] 

i«> [Cass. Dio., LXII, xxi [L. VIII, 120/1-122/3], " ,. fevyovra Se avrov [JJcutov] 
hnhicot;as t^v T€ iiri rov Tavpov KaraX€i<j>9^iaav vir* avrov (ppovpav e£e/co^re, /cat e/cetvov 
'PdvSeiav irpos tw *Apaaviq. TTOTapw odoav /caTe/cAeitre ", Adontz's translation of the 
last part of this passage, which he uses to determine Paetus' moves, does not follow the 
text with sufficient accuracy, and disagrees with the translation given by E. Cary, 
L. VHI, pp, 121, 123, " „. and shut him [Paetus] up in Khandea, near the river Arsa- 
nias '\ J. Jackson, in his notes to the Annals of Tacitus, XV, x [L, IV, p. 230 n. 1], 
agrees with Cary that Paetus was at Rhandeia '* on the north bank of the 'Arsanias' ", 
Momigliano, CAH, X, p. 768-769 likewise distinguishes Arsamosata and Hhandeia, 
the camp attacked by Vologaesus, " In the plain of Kharput lay the fortified city 
of Arsamosata (Tacitus calls it casiellum merely) on the southern bank of the Arsanias, 
.... On reaching the plain, Paetus proceeded to construct a base camp, choosing for 
its site Rhandeia, a place near Arsamosata but on the north bank of the river .,, ". 
See also, Ibid., p. 880 n. 5.] (37, 1) 

19 JIB, V, i, " ...jbiwthq k L p pwtufoh." Ibid., V, iv, " jknjiihq[jh [i 
Puijuyinhh ". [Wilson, Handbook, p. 250, " Pertek ... ruins of Armenian fortress 
{pertek in Kurd) ; ferry over the Euphrates ", Le Strange, began by seeking Arsamosata 
in the neighbourhood of Pertek ", notes to Ibn Serapion, p. 57, " The ruins of Shamshat 
are to be sought on the right or northern bank of the Murad Su, ,„ and they must lie 
somewhere near the village marked Pistik on Kiepert's map ". But in his later work, 
Lands, p. 116, he had rallied to the opinion of most scholars that Arsamosata '* appears 
to have stood on the southern or left bank of the river ". See also Markwart, Sild- 
armenien, pp, 100-101, and Honigmann, Osigrenze, p. 75 n. 8. The coordinates of the 
various Perteks in G 46, p. 511 do not fit the specifications nor is a ferry indicated near 
Yarimca on USAEM 340 A IV, (37, 1) 

i9a [Ptolemy, V, xii, p. 946,] 



19 *> [Ephr. Syr., Carm, Nisib., p, 93 [Cf. p. 33 n. 1], u Carmen ... de An(a)zit castello" 
= Amm, Marc, XIX, vi, 1 [L. I, 494/5], Joh. Eph,, HE, x, " Ziata capto castello ". 
See Hubsehmann, Ortsnamen, pp. 432-433, Markwart, Sudarmenien, pp. 96 sqq,, Honig- 
mann, Ostgrenze, pp. 35 n, 4, 75-77, etc., Le Strange, Ibn-Serapion, p. 49]. 

19c [7&w Serapion, pp. 10/47, 10-11/54. £ee a&ove n, 17.] 

19d [The problematic position of Mazara, cf, above n. 13 precludes the identification 
of the Calgar, Cf. also Le Strange, Ibn Serapion, p. 49.] 

20 Barhebraeus, Chron. Syr., pp. 396-397, u Then a legion of the Tatars invaded 
the country of the fortress of Zdid, and it came on as far as the Euphrates, which is in 
Melitene, and it crossed the plain of Hdndzii ". [Adontz, referring to the Bedjan 
edition of the text, p. 506 {sic, 463 ?), renders this passage as " ... venit usque ad Euphra- 
tem in limite Malatiae et transit in vallem Hanzith "], Cf. Barhebraeus, Chron. Ecc, 
I, p. 412. (38,1) 

20a [See above n. 5a. Also for the entire discussion on the two Soph enes, see Markwart, 
Eran., pp. 171-178, Sudarmenien, pp. *65, 31, 39 sqq., 54, 87-88, 91 sqq., 113, 121-124, 
130, 132, 161, 170, Streifzuge, pp. 480, 486; Honigmann, Ostgrenze, pp. 7 n. 1, 8-9, 16, 
24, 32-33, Romanopolis, p. 93; Eremyan, Armenia, pp. 35, 57, 62, 107, etc.] 

sot [Arm. Geogr., p. 30-41]. 

21 EB, IV, xxiv, " Xjnifig 5kb and \Jnijig fjUiCnrfint]" (more correctly " fcwCnih- 
Lng " as it is given in Ineieean's listing, Description, p. 48) ; Ibid., Ill, ix, " tfnifij) 
{jwQji"; Ibid., Ill, xii, " CiH^Jufi^ ". Vardan, Geography, p. 21, " tTnijiwij 
quiLUinh, Ifkblikpw hi. QS-^mbwl^ £♦ " Anastasius, List, p. 229, " '"tFnifiiui} 
quiLUinb, np mjdS l(n^ji QS^Ifinbuilf. " Asolih, II, i, p, 63, " jm^uwp/ih tFnijiwij 
fj qfiLqwgwqwglih Jtfnifwh ", Ptoh, V, xii, p. 942, " ..SAkiAiotjvt) kclI t) 'AaravviTis 

/CCU 7) TTpOS aVTTj T7] iKTpOTTT) TOU TTOTafXOV 7) UcQlfavi) *\ (38, 2) 

22 Mansi, VII, p. 403, " provinciae Mesopotamiae ep. VI : Symeon Amudensis, 
Neo Cesariensis, Zephanensis, Maras, Azetiniensis, Zebenios Martyropolitanus, Gaiumas 
Inseles, Inreles (sc. Ingeles), Eusenius (sc. Eusebms) Rufunensis, Suphaniensis ". The 
list of bishops present at the council and divided according to provinces is known only 
from a single Ms,, the Codex Maffeai, as noted by its editor Labbe, Acta, cols. 1799-1800, 
[Cf. Honigmann, Original Lists, p. 20], The names are to some degree distorted ; 
Caesariensis is probably a distortion of Zephaniensis, but in that case, the concrete 
content of the two Sophenes is not clear because of the inclusion in the list of Martyro- 
polis, which we know to have been considered one of the cities of Sophene. Among 
the signatories of the Council, we find Zebenius of Martyropolis as well as Symeon of 
Amida, whereas the signatures of the sixth session of the Council give : £vfj,€tovr)s ima- 
KOTTOS y Afj,iSr}s rijs tizrpoTroAews , vTriypwjfa xal virep tcov vtt* ifis, EvvGfiiov MapovovrroAstos, 
Kaiovfia OvaAapoGKOimoAeos , UrjpiKiov TroAetos ... hia UArpov npeu^vripov *\ Mansi, VII, 
pp. 166-167. Eusebius and Caiumas were listed above as bishops respectively of 
Sophanene and Angelene. Erom this we should conclude that the castle of Angel was 
also called Valarsekupolis, whereas Maronupolis was some unidentified city of Sophene. 
The Answer of the bishops of Mesopotamia to the Emperor Leo I concerning the Council 
of Chalcedon was signed by eight bishops: " Zoras (or more exactly Maras, as it is given 
in the heading of the Answer), Maronius, Noe, Eusebius, Keticius, Valaras, Maras, 
Abrahamus ", Mansi, VII, p. 555. Of these, Maras, ISToe, and Eusebius are the above- 
mentioned bishops of Anzitene, Sophanene, and Sophene. Keticius is undoubtedly 
the HrjpUios or Tyricius, for whom the presbyter John signed at the sixth session, 



We believe that Mapovov [ TroAew? and Ova\apo<=Kov ] -n-oAetos should he taken as the 
names of bishops: Maronius and Valaras (Arm, ^mqwp^ ^Imqmp^m^, Gk, QvaXapass 
the names of whose cities have dropped out of the Ms, as is the ease of the bishop " S-qpi- 
k(ov noAews ... '\ In this ease, Valarsekupolis becomes a questionable geographical 
term. [On the participants at the Council of Chalcedon, see Schwartz, ProsopograpMa 
and Bischofslisien ; Honigmann, Siudie% and Original Lists. For Marones and Valar- 
sekos, Ibid., pp. 75-76 n. 167 and Sludien, p, 82 n, 1; also Markwart, Sildarmenien, 
pp. 546-554], (39, 1) 

23 StepJi. Byz., p. 597, " Sw$nprij 9 x^P a T ^" v ^P°s y App,Gviav t cos Erpd^wv £p epSe/ccmj 
irapa S* i Appiava> Hwtpavrjvij TGTpaavl&dficos, ol kcltoikovvtgs JEcofoqvoi ". (39, 2) 

23a [Cass. Bio., XXXVI, liii [L, HI, 90/1,] 

23T [Joh. Eph., de beatis, xi, p. 144; HE, xxxiv-xxxv, pp, 257. Mich. Syr., IV, p. 378 
etc. See Markwart, Sudarmenien, p, 256 and Honigmann, Ostgrenze, p. 9 n. 1, On 
Supani, see Lehman-Haupt, Armenien, I, pp, 466-467,] 

24 For example Jos. Siyl., li, p, xliv, Kavadh had devastated Angel, Suph and 
Armenia [" Aghel, la Sophene, l'Armenie "]. Here Suph — Sophene, Arm, Sahunian 
Cop'k\ (41, 1) 

24a [Cod. Th., XII, 13, 6, See Appendix,] 

25 FB, V, xvlii, " ♦•♦ nummh m pgndi Ji jk^l 4. mi L *L mt b F^ m kt , l£ quu-uinjih kh 
Jihgkwhg fywjlih f 1 £wpfy[* bwnwjnLpkwh ". Ibid., IV, xxiii, " Hp^m!} 
*"jlXhqkq mmhh f-p jminkuin"; IV, xxiv, " jJJ^hqkq ™^'" qhpkqSwhg 
-^Jipdwijh uipwhijh JXp^wl^nLUkw^. PrnqmS quth\p Spkphmj_ Humr/hiu^ fywjfih". 
V, via, " nmnftl^wh £wLimmupfjfi ". The meaning of this term becomes clear from the 
historian's words, Ibid., V, xvi, " lfhpwliwtjriLU hi. numjilfmbu jkpljpfih IXq&hkwq 
PnquLfib ", where ifkpmlj^m^nL modifies nuwpfywh. Among the Syrians, the part 
of Arzanene which was subject to the osiiTcan was called Arzon and part of this was 
known as Arzanene Kwr^oxqv — Ostan ArzSn or even Be Ostan (Aoustan), Among 
the bishops present at the Council of 410 were, " Daniel ep. Arzon " and " Samuel ep, - 
Arzon de Beth Aoustan ", Chabot, Syn. Or., p, 274. [On Arzon and Arzanene, see 
Markwart, Sudarmenien, pp, 97, 119-120; Honigmann, Ostgrenze, pp. 17, 22-24, 32-34; 
Evictes, pp, 129-130], (42, 1) 

25a [FB, IV, xxiv, " **• qJfkprtLdwhL ♦*♦ w milium wlf jiu^fuwp^h Zwjn*} uin&lfih : 
Qfi phq JXrjPhfiu hi. phq ^Jniftu dhb, phq JXhqkq mndih hh phq quiLinnh JXh&wwj 
phq \jn1j3u &w£nL.hntj y phq. IfqnLp qiummh hi. phq Iwpwhwqt, phq t)l^kqku]^^**y>] 

25lD [Peir. Pairic, p, 135, " ^IyyrjX^vTjv^raSo^Tjvijs Kai^Ap^av^i^v p > €rdKapBov7]vwv kui 
ZapBiKijvijs ", The CSHB text has 'Jj/njA^v]. (43, 1) 

26 Amm. Marc, XXV, vii, 9 [L. II, 532/3], " ,,. petebat autem rex, ut ipse aiebat, 
sua dudum a Maximiano erepta ,„ quinque regiones Transtigritanes ; Arzanenam, et 
Moxoenam, et £abdicenam itidemque Behimenam, et Corduenam ", (43, 2) 

26a [See above, n, 1.] 

27 Amm. Marc, XXX, ii, 4-5 [L. Ill, 310/1], " .., absque mandatis oblatas sibi regiones 
in eadem Armenia suscepit exiguas ... has easdem imperatori offerens partes quas 
audacter nostri sumpsere legati ", (44, 1) 

28 Ibid., XXX, ii, 7 [L, HI, 310/1], 2 " .„ ut ea, quae Victor comes susceperat et 
Urbicius, armis repeteret .,. ". Ibid., XXXI, vii, 1 [L. Ill, 424/5], " ,., ut super Ar- 
meniae statu pro captu rerum componeret impendentium ,.. ". (44, 2) 




/ ^ '■' c / ■ '■ 



29 [Ibid., XXX, ii, 4 [L. Ill, 308/9], " ,„ ad arbitrium suum vivere cultoribus eius 
permiasis ". This is the time at which Valens issued the decrees: CJ, XII, 23 (24), 
" De, palatinis saerarum largitionum et rerum privatarum ",' 2, " D. viii k. 3?ebr. Antio- 
chiae Gratiano A. IIII et Merobaudes conss, ". And Ibid., XII, 37 (38), " De erogatione 
militaris annoriae ", 6, " D. prid. non. April. Antiochiae Gratiano A. IIII et Merobaude 
vc, conss, ". (45, 1) 

30 Amm. Marc, XVIII, ix, 2 [L. I, 464/5], " ... verticibus Taurinis ... gentes Trans- 
tigritanas dirimentibus et Armeniam ". {45, 2) 




a [Novella XXXI, i, 1, see Appendix I. Arm, Geogr,, 29/40. The listing of provinces 
in the Soukry edition of the Geography omits Xorjayn and Pabiatun. 

" Uniu^fjh w^jumpC Pwp&p Zwj£<>"* 

♦ ♦• wnw^frh w^fuwpi qwLwnu fthh, ^wpwhwqfiy IXqfuh^ XTqiup^ blfkqhwLj^ 
{fwhwhwqji, *}*bp£wh, \]wkp, fcwpqwSgfywpJih"* ". 

0/. Eremyan, Armenia, pp. 55, 76. The Geography lists these districts in Armenia. 
On the problems of the Geography in general, and more particularly on the question 
of the Armenian provinces and the districts included in them, see Eremyan, Armenia, 
Appendix II, pp. 116-120, et passim, and Hewsen, Armenia,] 

1 FB, III, ii and xi, " %wp whw jhwij qwL.wL.wn.fih fi qfn-qh *** fonpqwh ". 
Ibid,, III, xi, and IV, xxiv, " jlXhfh jblfbqhwij qwLwnh %wpwhwqbwrj ", Ibid,, 
III, ii and xiv; Ibid,, V, xxiv-xxv, " jb^bqbwg qwLwnfi fi fi^fijh WLwhfi, ". Ibid,,, 
V, xxiv, " jwiqwpwhu fiLp fi fowju WLwhfi jbtybqhwrj qwLwnfi"; Ibid,, IV, xii, 
%i ft Ijwpfih qwLwni ft qbq^t Ifwpwqwj "; Ibid,,Y, xxxvii, " fi qw^wfih ^wphnj ". 
Ibid,, V, xliv, " fi qwLwnh *]wphnj"; Ibid,, IV, xxiv, " ITqnLp qwiwn". 
Ibid,, V, xliv, " fi JJmkp qwLwnl ", 

Agaf, cix, p. 582, " ^r 'hwpwhwqhwij qwLwnh*** fi qbwLqh ft*npqwh", also 
IUd,, cxxiv, p. 635 ; Ibid,, v, p. 45, u ^jb^bqbwtj qwLwn^ fi ifrufi t*Pl"L u 'J it * 
Ibid,, cix, pp. 584-585, " jbpkqh wLwhfih *.. fi'l'lp jmuuftfi"; Ibid,, ex, p. 587, 
"•«• fi tj.WL.wnh ^bp^wh • ♦♦ fi qbtqh qpp Pwqwjwnp£h fyn^bh ... ", 

Koriwn, VII, v, p. 21, " b^bqbgbw^wl^wh qwiwnlh"; Ibid,, XIV, iii, p. 38, 
" biqfiul^niqnuh 'hhp^whwj"; Ibid,, X, i p. 29, " J\Jnpkbhwl^wh qwLwn"; Ibid,, 
VII, v, p. 21, " fi tywq < whw > fywh mwh^h ", according to the name of the 
city of tywqwh or tywqfih whence tywqfih—w—wnLhy fywqwh—wlfwh mmh, ". 
Ibid,, X, i, p, 29 should probably read ft ^wpjihwlfwhuh instead of fi l^wjbhwl^whuh, 
[Cf,, however, the editor's note to Koriwn, p. 89 n. 36]. 

LP\ lxxix, p. 472, " Ji nwL.wn.fih np tyn^fi, Dwqwqntl ". 

MX, III, lx, " Cwqqndg ", Sebeos, p. 139, " fefuwhgh Ifwhwnwjgh, hi. 
%wpwhwqwjgh ". LP\ xxiv, p. 134, " Sip Qwi.ih \Twh [wh] wqutj hwfiulinwnu, ", 
which should be corrected into " • • • fi Jfwpqwqunj ", the form given in the same 
context by Miise, ii, p, 28, " bt~qwq bwfiulfniqnu Ifwpqnjwqmj ", though the 
latter gives the name of the bishop as Eulalios rather than Zawen, The reading 
Afiwc IXnfjLb [for Aliwn is given by Incicean, Description, p. 2], (47, 1) 

la [See above, chapter I, pp. 14-16,] 

2 It is already mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions. Cf, Lehmann-Haupt, Weitere 
Bericht and Huntington, Weitere Berichi, [Also Lehmann-Haupt, Armenien, I, pp. 465 
sqq.]. Asolih, II, vi, p. 144 has JXunqfih instead of the correct tfjwqfih which is, 
however found, Ibid,, III, vii, p. 177. [Cf, Markwart, Sildarmenien, pp. 40, 246, and 
Honigmann, Osigrenze, p. 178 n. 4 and 185]. (47, 2) 

3 Georg, Cypr,, p. 49, " xdurpov IlaXios and Kaorpov Ba('iov)Xovos, /cAijua IlaAwTJs 
and KMfMa BiAafiTjTivTjs '\ Since the form IlaXios, i,e, the de-nasalized tfjwqji — h 
exists, can a relationship be sought between it and Balu ? Cf, the princely house of 
Paluni = ^u/£/7z.&/r. (47, 3) 



3a [This city should not he confused with the Bagratid capital, Ani in Sirak. Of. 
Eremyan, Armenia, p. 35.] 

4 The modern name of these mountains is Gohanam. The same mountains are called 
Uhium^C in the Life of St, Bfip'sime and are identified with the Jfmhhwj wjpg<> Alishan, 
Eayapainm, p. 77, " ■♦♦♦ Jj [unp^ jhpfiult JJkiunL^ i{n shaking np mhnLuknmt Xfmhhmj 
wjpg ". The name of the mountains in the Life [attributed to] Agat'angelos has 
the sound, ffwbwjwpg, which Movses Xorenaci interprets as meaning ts the cave of 
Mani — Jfuihhwj uipg ", MX, II, xei. [On the problems of " Agafangehs " and 
its content, see 'below Chapter X, n, 89a], This interpretation is unlikely. The initial 
Mana- is more probably related to -ftfcm-alia. According to Kiepert, Karte, Kohanam 
is located at the source of the Komtirsuyu, i.e. north of Kemah, while Lynch, Armenia, 
Map, places them east of Kemah, between this city and Erzinean, The monastery of 
the Holy Illuminator (Surb Lusaworiy) in which the kat'o&kos found refuge according to 
Asolih, III, v, p. 168, was found here, " *♦♦ ji Shumpmu u PP n J Ionium wpM 
Shpnj, ft jkiunh np Jfmukwj Hjpj> utujj^ jj ^utpmhmnkmn quiLumfiu ft iftuhu 
fyuwlilftuj Tar. tjwnhnj ", The modern Garni [Kami], on the bank of the Euphrates, 
shows that the Ifmhkmj Xkjpg are indeed the mountains called Kohanam and Sepouh 
by Lynch. JoK JEJrznh., p. 127, puts the Sepuh mountains " ♦ ♦ ♦ ji 3fi9nnu uw^Sinhji 
hpl^nLn qwLWTimgh J)l^hqkujn hi, *}*uipiuuninjiij " where he believed that Saint 
Manea had lived. The mountain near Ispir hj the residence of the bishop in the monas- 
tery of St, John is also called Goan, Incicean, Geography, p. 94. Cninei, I, p. 172, calls 
these same mountains ■ " Sebouh" and according to his description, "... le JDjoroh ou 
Tchoroh-sou, ... prend sa source dans la montagne de JSebouh, dans le caza d'Izpir ", 
There must be some misunderstanding here. Cuinet's sources may have referred to a 
western tributary of the Qoruh which sprang from the Sipikor (Arm, Surb Grigor) 
mountains found in the neighbourhood of the Kohanam-Sepuh, and Cuinet mistakenly 
transferred this information to the tributary from Ispir, [Of,, however, Cuinet's 
own warning, p, 161 against confusing the Qoruh and the Tortumsuyu, On the Sepuh- 
Maneay-ayrk', see Eremyan, Armenia, pp. 49, 80.] (48, 1) 

4a [^ or Daranahk', see, Markwart, SUdarmenien, pp. 92 sqq. and Eremyan, Armenia, 
p. 49.] 

5 Agat\, eix, p. 585. To go from Erez to T'il, St, Gregory the Illuminator was 
forced to cross the Gayl, " + + *$*} tj-htnu ^mjj_ jmjul^njn whtjwul;fiu+". This 
is to be interpreted as the river of Erznka [Erzinean]. [On the Gayl, and the " Other ' 4 
Gayl, see chapter I n, 26. On T'il, see Honigmann, Ostgrenze, pp. 79 sqq. and Chapter II 
n. 14]. (48,2) 

6 AL, xxiii, p. 125, " ft*£ npiqlu hi. fi Ifmhrnhmninj uw^Swliuli p.nppnj)hqwL 
£pn.h£ SnjnpnLphmhh^ wuhjji £ ; 

ynLubfilf niih fhwum.u mpknmj np puwfyip tlom ji phpn-wgiunw^pu np fynifi 
trftpfi [the Yuzbasyan edition replacing the earlier one used by Adontz gives the name 
of this city as l^jipb^ np nhnhm mjuop m^mpml^fih nhnpwju muniSt tyn^ ♦ * • ", 
Ibid., xxiii, p, 128, " ♦•♦ nwn.wpwl^uh ♦ ♦• npnn wum.tuugu fyn£Jiu SjinLSu ^m^ hi. 
Sftmntfih JXnjuunj ", Idem,, " fr CwwnLwbu jhpfiuh tfjwfupwj [np uijdfi Ifn^jj 
^mjjm^mnnLm] ♦ ♦• uitmu fin£ lp nnp PwnpmqffiLp ![nsku* mp tjUjiuinuab- 
tujfiu h^mhh «♦♦ fywun.uhw^ Ifiu. np hi. nmhnih^£u jj unjh ipnjuhm^ fauj£ 
mhntmhhu Sjih^ht nwjuop ", Ibid., xxiii, p. 130, " hpphwj^ *** Sjjh^ki. jhnjt 
qhrnnju IjLifipwwwj) nip Xfrnhmumnji Ji hSm fuurnhp : +** jmjhl^nju jwuuhh, 
np lfn^{t ynp^p^ gwhoj* hi. n.wwwLnpn uilin. jm^ £p ", (49 ,1) 



7 Of. Kiepert, Karie, and Lynch, Armenia, Map. Cuinet, I, p, 198, " KJiotour, 
ou passe la route d'Erzeroum a. Erzindjan, a 130 kilometres 750 metres au sud-ouest 
de Mamakhatoun; on y voit tin tres bean pont snr l'Euphrate ". [Of. Eremyan, ^tr- 
menia, p, 63, on the ICotur bridge. On MananaH, see, Honigmann, Ostgrenze, pp. 64, 
180, 184, 192-193 and the article MavavaXis in PF, XIV (1930), pp. 971-972; also 
Eremyan, Armenia, pp, 64-65, 116, etc], (50, 1) 

8 AL, xxiii, pp. 131-132, " fi [pi.uwhiu^im.nLph, ♦ ♦♦ kppkut^ jkuifiu^niqnumpmhu^ 
np <Ppp[iuh \n$ ". In view of the form of the name [Piriz], the reading 
tyfipfw is preferable to <ppp[iu. [However, the form *Ppp[w is maintained in the 
Yuzbasyan edition], (50,2) 

9 There are five MSS. in Venice ; the one used by InSieean reads l/jiphji, Description, p, 23, 
Eritsov, Supplement to the " List of Inhabited Sites in the Province of Erzerum ", 
Izvestiia KavJcazhago Otdeleniia Jmperatorshago MmsTcago Geograficheslcago Obshchestva, 
VIII (1883), fasc. 1, Supplement, p. 97, takes this to be the Turkish {i.e. Persian) 
word meaning " sweet ", but this is a mistake; [Cf. above, n. 6], (51, 1) 

10 Haekoy, with 32 hearths, Hid., p. 96, [No settlement of this name can now be 
identified but the name is preserved in the neighbouring Hay mountains], (51, 2) 

11 AL, iii, p, 35, " ♦ ♦•:• ilph^ln. jtufintphy np \n^i Ijuiqmnj l£n[i£ [j uupinLmbh 
^imphnj ..♦ ", [Of. Ibid,, x, p. 64], Ciiinet, I, p, 160, " Kiaghid-Aridj ". 
Ineieean, Geography, p, 79, gives two villages named %mqtnwnjj£, one Armenian and 
the other Muslim, not far from each other, Asoiih, III, xv, p. 192, " ♦♦• mwi 
hSut njhjwqwnjiim[j6 yq£, qQnp^mjpfj kt q^wppii^ npwukwh *♦• *\ 
Also, Ibid., Ill, xliv, p. 278, Cormayr is the district of the springs of the Qoruh, Yalcovb 
Karneci, p, 580, " fitnpnju kj^mhl ft tymjiunj ]kpwhij gwnwghn h Pmi 
dwjpkwij tff>2 n J \} tj-WLumllj Qnpdmjpnj ", (52, 1) 

is Lynch, Armenia, U, p, 230, (52, 2) 

13a [Strabo, XI, xiv, 5 [L. V, 324/5], " ... Ka^vtnv koX Sepfrprrp (so. Asp&fprqr) ... 
9 AK%\iayprrp> ". Ibid., XI, xiv, 9 [L, V, 328/9], [" MhaXX* S* h> pkv rjj Uvampirihl ion 
Xpvuov ... "], SvQTTiptTis = Sdutrsipos m Eerodottis [I, 104, 110; HI, 94; IV, 37, 40 etc] 
and 'EoTrcphw in Xen„ Anab., VII, viii, 25, [L, II, 370/1, Cf, p. 370 n. 1], (53, 1) 

13 *> [Pliny, NB, V, xx,83 [L.II, 284/5]," deEuphrate... oritur in praefecturaArmeniae 
Maioris Oaranitide .,. sub radicibus montis quern Capoten appellat ... fluit Derzenen 
primum, mox Anaeticam, Armeniae regiones a Cappadocia excluens ". Strabo, X, 
xiv, 16 [L. V, 340/1], " ..Ira Se rfjs 7 AvatriBos Btafepovrcas 'Apfi4vioi, h> t€ aAAoiS 
iBpv<7dp,Gvot. tqttqis, koX Bi} /cm iv ~ rjj *AKiKimv7j ■ ". Agaf, [v, p, 45, " *** j})bknkmq 
quiLiim, fi qhLnJi kpfjqwj, Ji JhChmhh JXhw£wwliwh*" ". Ibid., eix, p. 584, etc.], 
Cass. Dio., XXXVI, xlviii, 1 [L, III, 78/9], " .., ttjv 'Avafaiv x&pav tt}s re 'Appepias 
oifoav koX Bgw rivi eTrcuvvjuw dvaKGip,4v7]v "]. 

12c [Ptolemy, V, xii, 6, #ee Appendix IVA, Procopius, Pers,, I, xvii, 11 [L. 1, 146/7], 
... 6 TTorapos, IMv^pdrijs^ irposimv is tt)v KsK€<jt}vt)v KaXovp,i^r}v ^wpay, o^ Br) to iv 
Tavpois rfjs ^Apr4{jn,Bos, hpov fjv ",] 

12d [Mansi, XI, p, 645, ts r^opyiov imtJKoirov AapavaAscos ttjs MsydAtjs; *Apfievia$. 
Georgius episcopis teritorii Daranalis sive Analiblae, Magnae Armeniae regionis ".] 

I2e [Procopius, Pers., II, xxiv; 14 [L. I, 476/7], " Xopjm^v^ 'xwpla ?'. Aed. Ill, 
iii, 9 [L, Vn, 192/3], " Xop£dnj ".] 

13 Georg. Oypr., p. 49, " Mpo. Uahv^s. KAipa ^Opliavivrjs. Khifm Mov^ovptov ". (53, 1) 

14 Strabo, XI, xiv, 5 [L, V, 324/5], " KapajviTiv Kal S^pltjvijv, a t$ fiixpa 'Apftwiq, iorlv 
ojwojoa jj Kal ixiprq avrTJs iuri ", {Of* below n, 15], (54, 1) 



14 & [See above, pp. 39-40.] 

15 Strabo, XI, xii, 3 [L. V, 296/7], " ... 6 Ev^pdrfjs ... pimv 8* em hvmv Sm ttjs 
'Apfisvias rijs jJLGydXTjs KaXovixivqs p>*XP l T V S fAiKpas t eV Se£ta £x wv ^o.vtj)v, ev dpiorspa 8e 
ttjv 'AkiAiutjvtjv gJt emcrTpe^ci irpos vorov, [ovvdirrei Se /caret ri)v iiriurpojyr)v rots 
KainrahoKQiv opims " ]. (54,2) 

15a [Ibid,, XII, iii, 28 [L, V, 424/5], " ... /cat rys 'AkiXwtjvtjs Kara. Adareipa evvhpov 
opos KaraXapop,€vos (TrXijaiov 8* fjv xai 6 Ev^pdrrjs 6 8io/n£cov rrjv , AkiXwt]vt]v airo ttjs 
p,iKpas *App,Gvias ... ".] 

15t) j\ZM<2,, XI, xiv, 2 [L. V, 320/1], " ... e/c $ar4pov Se p,£povs %x wv T V ^/aAicn^Tp 
ju.€Ta|v lBpvp,4vrjv rov * Avnravpov re /cai r^s tov Ev(j>pdrov TrorapLias, irplv t) Kapmrsw avrr)v 
£ttI vqtqv ". H.M. Jones, the editor, also substitutes Anti-Taurus for Taurus in this 
passage. Cf. Ibid., L. V, p. 320 n. 1,] 

15e [Ibid,, XI, xiv, 5 [L. V, 324/5], " ... 'AkiAiotjvtjv /cat rrjv Trzpl rov y Avriravpov f ... ".] 

16 The original form is Z/iirifiir^r which is found in Sebeos, xxxv, p. 139, The form 
Ifuihuihmqji shows the influence of ^mpmhmqji. [Both forms are, however, found 
side by side in Sebeos, Idem, " Ifmhmq^ujj^ Bl r hwpwhwqwjgh ". {55, 1) 

16a [Arm. Geogr., pp. 29/40, Ptolemy, V, vi, 18, See Appendix IVA-C] 
lei? [IUn, Ant,, 208, p. Ix. Tab. Petit., p. 679, See Appendix IVD-E.] 
16c [See above, n, a.] 

1 7 [Ptolemy, V, vi, 18. See Appendix IVA]. Strabo, XI, xiv, 12 [L. V, 332/3], 

"... T7}V *AkiXiOT]VT}V ... r7)V V7TO TO?? 2oj<j>T]VOl$ TTpOTGpQV 0§QO.V, ... ". [Cf. L, V, p. 324 

n. 1]. Ibid., XI, xiv, 5 [L. V, 324/5], " 6 p,kv rijs £oj<f>T}vr}s /cat rrjs *Akwt)vt)$ /cat 
' Odop,avr(Bo$ /cat aXAcov rwmv ". (56,1) 

is *A1ci$-Bne, ^ml^p — u resp, winking, wl^fj - ^„ AMMs-eixv, ^wl^ji - mqji - u 
wlfh — inrjkwrf^ m^jiwi^li — g. Orbis-ene, * i7 / J / 2 /' — u * Orbalis-eiie, *npp — mqjj-~ii. 

jBao-iXic7)vrj, which is the name given by Ptolemy V, xii, 6, to the province lying next 
along the Euphrates, should perhaps be included here. Incidentally, if this form is 
not a la^siis calami for Basiane, the two forms bear the same relationsnip to each other 
as Orbisene and Orbalisene ; piuufi—wh, *pwujj — mi^fi—ii, BamXia-yvrj. This form 
is not found in Armenian literature, it was perhaps the earlier name given to the province 
lying next to Basiane, which was subsequently called Mardafa* XTu3pfj.mtjji because the 
Mardians, MdpZoi settled in it, [Cf. Mialler, notes to Ptolemy, pp. 882 n. 5, and 941 n. 11], 

(56, 2) 

19 J oh. Mrznh,, p. 143, " JXji L bnpbnpu gn jhpmhg fi hkpgnj kplipfj mqpfjLpu 
wnh nmpwhmnhmi nthhu * * * n P ni [ ^ Ihwpwh ^^^ k 13 ?! 111 J m J u ** ^kpqjipbnLphh^ ". 

(56, 3) 
19a [Strabo, XI, xiv, 1 [L. V, 334/5], "oi 8* vimpB^. r&v 'AppGviwv vTrzp rov MjSov /cai rov 
Nlfiapov ".] 

19* [MX, II, xlvin; III, xiv.] 
i 9e [See above, n. 12d,] 
i9d [MX, II, Ixxvi, lxxxiv,] 
i 9e [See below, n, 21a,] 

20 Strabo, XU, iii, 12 [L. V,- 392/3], " ... u>vop>a(jrai S* dird rwv dXwv, as Trapappsi ,., ". 
Ibid., XII, in, 39 [L. V, 448/9], " ... etui 8' iv rjj Eipiprij aAai opvKrwv, dXtov, a<j>* cSv 
et/ca£owtv elpTJoOai v AXw rov trorajxov ", Ibid,, XII, hi, 37, [L. V, 440/1], *' ... KovXovin}- 
vrjv Kal rT)v Kap,iG7)vr}v, 6p,6povs rfj re piKpa y Ap}juzvia ... ixovcras opvKrovs ahas /cai 
epvjua dpxoXov rd Kdp.ioa, vvv KarGGTravpLsvov ". It is interesting to compare the " Kulu- 



pene " of Strabo and the " Kolop-ena " [Colopene] of Pliny [NB, VI, ii, 8; L, II, 342/3] 
with the Armenian *jnq--p. which is also a region containing salt deposits. BvMailiius 
of Thessalonihe, commenting on Terse 784 of Dionysios' Periergesis, p. 354, " poal "AAvos 
TTOTCLfiov amo twv > App£viwv opcbv ", notes, concerning Strabo's etymology, that if the 
geographer's opinion is accepted, AAvs should always be written cum spiritu aspro, 
while those who do not give a rough breathing to the name derive it from aArq " wander- 
ing ", meaning that the river wanders through many lands, (58, 1) 

20a [Strabo, XII, iii, 19-20, [L. V, 400/1-402/3], Homer, Iliad, II, 856. Cf. n. 23.] 

21 Marr, Grammar, p. 98. (58, 2) 

21a [Pliny, BE, VI, iv, 12; ad, 29 [L. H, 346/7 and 358/9]. 

32 Sieph, Byz,, p, 680, " Xakhia, x™P a r ys 'Appzvias ". JEustaihius of Thessalonihe, 
p. 350. (59, 1) 

23 [Homer, Iliad, II, 856-857, 

" ... avrap ^AAi^wvoov , Ohio$ Kal * Siriarpox^os $PX 0V 

TT]A6$a> it? *AAvf$T)s, o#ev apyvpov iarl y^vidAi) "] 
Strabo, XII, iii, 19 [L. V, 400/1], <s [01 Se vvv XaASaioi Xakvfizs to iraAaiov covo/xa^ovro, 
.„ £k Bk ttjs yf}$] rd fteraAAa, vvv mbrjpov, irporspov Se Kal apyvpov ". [Ibid,, XII, iii, 
23; L. V, 410/1, " ... o ArjixTJrpios ... et /cat yurj ecm vvv iv rots XdAvr/si rd apyvpsia, 
virdpgai ye eVede^eTo, eiceivo ye ov ovyx<*>p£h on Kal eVSofa yv Kal a£ia /xvtJju^s, KaBdirsp rd 
trifypeta "]. (59, 2) 

24 Gutsehmid, Kleine Schriften, III, p. 487, (59, 3) 
24a [The attribution of this region to Lesser Armenia in the Armenian Geography is by 

no means clear. On pp. 29-30/40, both the Gayl-Lykos and the Akampsis-Voh-Qoruh 
are said to have their source in the province of Upper Armenia. On pp. 35/46 the Voh 
is said to flow through both Tayk' and Sper, Yet on pp, 29-30/39-40 both Upper 
Armenia and Tayk' are given as provinces of Greater Armenia, whereas Tayk' is listed 
as one of the component districts of Upper Armenia. However, on pp. 28/38 the 
Geography mentions that part of northern Tayk* near the Voh had been taken away 
from the Armenians presumably by Iberia, Even here, nevertheless, pp. 27/38 the 
source of the Voh is again placed in Greater Armenia,] 

25 Procopius, Aed., Ill, iv, 1-2 [L. VII, 194/5], " ,.. em tt}s aAXys *App,wias ... Sd-raAa 
irofos ... ". Cf, Ibid., p. 194 n. 1 identifying the " other Armenia " with Lesser 
Armenia, Ibid., Ill, iv, 5 [L. VET, 196/7], "... <f>povpiov Se HaraAwv ov 7roAA<£ dmoBsv 
iyvpov ayav ev x^P a ' Oapojjviov Kakovp,iv7} (pKoBop/jjuaro ". The region containing Sa- 
tala, among other localities, was called Orbalisene by Ptolemy, V, vi, 18, who gave the 
district further to she south as Orsene, The Osroene of Procopius has no connexion 
with them and should perhaps be linked with the Armenian Erez. The alternate 
reading y Qpoor}v$>v is also found, Procopius, " Aedificiis " CSHB, p, 253 n, 2. [No 
such reading is indicated by HJB, Dewing in the Loeb edition of Procopius, Aed., L. VH, 
p. 196, the possibility of another reading is, however, suggested by the fact that Pro- 
copius elsewhere Pers., I, xvii, 34 [L, I, 154/5] ; Aed., II, vii, 1 [L. VII, 146/7], etc. lists 
Osrhoene in the usual manner together with Mesopotamia], In this region were also 
found, in addition to Koloneia, " <j>povpia wKoBofirjaaro to Te -BcujBeoStov KaAovpevov ko\ 
to "Apscov. Kal to Avaiopfzov ... avv tw Avrapapi^cbv. h> ts x w P^» oiTsp JPep/javov koXovui 
0oaadrov, ... dAAa Kal 27ejSacrTetas Kal NikottoAgcos ... ". Ibid., Ill, iv, 10-11 [L, VII, 
198/9], (60, 1) 



26 Ibid., III, v, 1 [L. VII, 200/1], " Tavra fxev ovv iv rfj ' 'Apfj,€via rj iuriv iv ck£ta 
Evtf>pdrov TTorafiov eipyduaro' oaa Se ol iv 'Ap}j,evia rfj jucyaA^ ... B^ohooioviroXiv ", 
Ibid., Ill, v, 13 [L. VII, 204/5]",,. rd.Bilava ... " Ibid., Ill, v, 15 [L. VII, 208/9], 
" ... iv x w P 6 V Tiovpiva ... '\ (60, 2) 

26a [Jb%d^ HIj yj^ J [L, VII, 204/5], " ... to. T^dvcov sBvtj ... TTpoaoiKoi *App,zviois etcriv". 
Ibid., Ill, vi, 12 [L. VII, 208/9], ** ... iKKk'quiav iv xcopitp Z^a/^aAtvi^cov Ka\ovp,4va> 
Sei/za/zevos' ... "] 

26b [7M„ III, vi, 15-16 [L. VII, 208/9], 

** Xtopav ivravBd nva cV rplobov a7ro/c€/cpip.ev7?v £ufi/3atWt etvat. 'Pwfmicov re yap /cat 
IlepGapixGviwv rd opia /cat T^dvcov avrajv T^Se dpgdp,sva ivBivoz hiaoKshavwrai. ivravBa 
(f>povpiov i)(vpa>rarov } ov irporspov 6v, ovofia *Opovwv, i^ipyaarai, /ce^aAatov avro tt}s slpr/vys 
TTSTronjixivos. h>Bev yap rd 7Tp&ra. t Pcop.ahts 17 T^clvikt) iafiarr} yeyovsv ... ".] 

sec [Ibid., HI, vi, 20 [L. VII, 210-1]]. 

27 26«., ni, ti, 22-26 [L. VII, 210/1-212/3], 

"... juera 3e rot? opovs rdv Trpoiroha, o$ Kzvd to ^copiov ev to> o^taAo) £vp,fialv€t etvat, ivBivoe 

TOl loVTl €771 hvOVrd TTQV TQV TflAtOV, TO 2l(7lAlO(JQ>V OVOjAO. <f>pQVpiOV ioTW, ... SvBzV 0€ tdWt eV 

dpiGTGpd, rrpos fioppav ave/xov x^pos* ris iuriv, 6Wep KaXovaiv ol hnx^P 101 Aoyyivov (f>oooarov, 
eWt Aoyyivos ev tois avco %pavois *Pw/j,ata)v arpareyos, "Ioavpos yivos, orparsvaas em T^dvovs 
nork Tijbe 7T€7roiT]rai to OTpaToWSoj*. ivravBa <j>povpiov 6 jSatnAeus" o^tos ovofxa BovpyovavoTjS 
oeB7)}MOVpy7)K€v, Ttfiipas obto ZicriAicrcrcSv Ste^ov ... ivrevBev opia ru>v T^dvcov rwv Ko^vkivtav 
KoAovfjiivcov iuriv o$ brj tj>povpia vvv ttzttoitjtcli hvo, to tc Zxa^aAivt^wv /caAov/xevov /cat 
oTrep T^av^aKtov irrovop-d^ovrnv ... ". (61, 1) 

28 Ibid., Ill, vii, 1 [L. VII, 212/3]. (61, 2) 
28a [Procopms, Goth. TV (VIII), ii, 3 [L. V, 62/3], 

* c ... Tpa7re^oi»vTtcov Sc to opia SiiJ/cet I? tc Kuyjirqv £ovaovpp,€va ko.1 to *Pt^atov KaAov/zevov 
Xwpiov, 07T€p TpaTTG^owritov 6te^€t 8votv 7}fji€paiv ohov hid TTJs TrapaAtas es AclIiktjv lovn ... 
toutcuv §€ 8^ tojv x^P^ 001 ^ gv §*£ l $ T( i T^avtAc^s op77 iravra dve^ei, eW/cetva Te at^TcSv 'Apjxivwt 
'PcojuaiW /car^/coot wktjvtcli ". 

In the case of tMs passage I have re-placed the quotation from Proeoprus which was 
paraphrased by Adontz, but in general this entire section is a paraphrase of Procopius, 
Pers., I, xv, 20-25 and II, xxix, 14-22 [L. I, 134/5-136/7 and 531/2-534/5]; and Aed., 
Ill, vi, 1-12 [L. VII, 204/5-208/9]. See also the following notes.] 

29 Procopms, Goth., IV (VIII), ii, 2-8 [L. V, 62/3-64/5], (61, 3) 

30 Proeopi-us, Pers. II, xxx, 14 [L. I, 544/5], (62, 1) 
3»a [Procophis, Pers. II, xxix, 14 [L. I, 530/1-532/3]; Goth., IV, ii, 6 [L. V, 62/3].] 

3013 [Koloneia is usually identified with the modern §ebm-Karahissar, Cf. Honigmann, 
Ostgrenze, p. 152 n. 2, 215, et aZ.] 

31 Procopms, Aed., HI, vi, 1 [L. VII, 204/5-206/7] and Pers. I, xv, 21-25 [L. I, 136/7. 

(62, 2) 

31a [Procopius, Aed., Ill, vi, 18 [L. VII, 208/9-210/1], " ... iv x ™ph ^ oha> ^ipaiv ovolv 
'Opovcov Ste^ovri o^ $i) T^dvcov tcDv 'Qkgvitwv KoXovp-ivoiv rd opid iariv (iirzi is Wvt) 77oAAd 
Sta/ce/cptvTai T^avot^, ivravBd ri 6xvpcop.a 'n^troirnxivov fy rois irdXat dvBpwTrois, ... Xaprcbv 
ovo/xa ". See also above nn, 26b, 27,] 

3113 [Neither Horonon nor Halane can be identified at present,] 

310 [See above, n. 27.] 

aw [£ee below, Chapter IV, p. 64, n. 16a.] 

31 e [Not. Dig., xxxviii, 30 " Conors militaria Germanorum, Sisila ". See Appendix IIA.] 



32 The reading T^avldKcw is perhaps preferable to T^av^aKwv. [For Bourgonsnoes 
and Schamalinichon, see above, n. 27], (65, 1) 

32a> [Cf. Cuinet, I, pp. 87 sqq,, " Sandjak de Samsoun (Djanik) ".] 

33 Georg. Cypr., p. 24, " ^Eirapxta Aa^iKijs. ... 8. o tx}$ Ziyaviwv '\ (65, 2) 


This appendix is an attempt at a partial synthesis of the geographical 
information found in Adontz's work together with the identifications 
of later scholars and the modern forms of toponyms. The material 
is presented in tabular form, with all the equivalents of a given topo- 
nym, ancient (Armenian and Classical) or modern, being given when- 
ever possible. Every equivalent form of a toponym has been treated 
as a separate entry and provided with the available literary and map 
references relevant to it. Hence, all alternatives should be consulted 
in order to obtain the complete information. Variant forms, however, 
are given as part of their main entry without additional information, 
although, in the case of provinces, an attempt has been made 
to indicate the source in which the variant form occurs. 
Scholars continue to disagree as to the identification and position 
of a number of localities, so that no attempt has been made to reconcile 
divergent opinions which will be found in the references. 

The main works consulted for this appendix have been: Eremyan, 
Hayastan 9st " Asxarhacoyc " [E] ; Toumanoff, Studies in Christian 
Caucasian History [T], (on the provinces), and the Department of the 
Interior's Gazetteer No. 46 : Turkey [G] ; The maps used were : Ere- 
myan's Hayastan dst " Asxarhacoyc ", and the Atlas of the Armenian 
SSR [AA], (for Armenian toponyms) ; Calder and Bean's A Classical 
Map of Asia Minor [CM], and the Grosser Historischer Weltatlas I 
[HW] (for Classical names) ; and the USAF Aeronautical Approach 
Chart [U] (for the modern equivalents). Miller's Itineraria Romana 
[M] is the references given for the stations in the Tabula Peutingeriana 
and the Itinerarium Antonini. Other references are given only where 
particularly relevant or if they are not included in the corresponding 
notes. References to Lynch' s and Kiepert's maps have been omitted 
as incorporated in Adontz's work, and reflecting conditions existing in 
1908 rather than at the present time. 

Of necessity, references have been highly selective, or even arbitrary, 
and severely limited, since any pretence at exhaustiveness would 
have expanded this appendix beyond manageable size and far trans- 
cended its modest scope. The shortcomings of such a limited attempt 


are far too obvious to require comment; the most that can be hoped 
here, is that this listing will provide some minimal assistance to the 
reader faced with the chaotic state of Anatolian toponymy at the 
present time. 


The following abbreviations have been used in this section in ad- 
dition to those given in the Bibliography and Notes : 

Agat'. Agat'angelos, PatmuViwn [History], 3rd ed. (Venice, 1930). 

Aed. Procopius, " On Buildings ", Works, H.B. Dewing and G. Downey edd. 

and trans {Cambridge, Mass. -London, 1940), VII. 

A.M. Ammianus Marcellinus, The Surviving Books of the History, J.C. Rolfe ed. 

and trans (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1950). 

de B. Johannis Episcopi Ephesi ... Commentaria de Beatis Orientalibus ..., W.J. van 

Douwen and J.P.N. Land trans. (Amsterdam, 1889). 

B.L. Qirk' TWoc [The Book of Letters] (Tiflis, 1901). 

CJ " Codex Justinianus ", P. Kriiger ed. in CJC, II, 8th ed. (1906). 

C.Th. Codex Theodosianus, T. Mommsen ed. (Berlin, 1905). 

D.A.I. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, G. Moravscik 

et al. edd., (Budapest-London, 1949, 1962). 

E. Eremyan, S.T., Hayastand 9st " Asxarhacoyc " [Armenia According to 

the " Armenian Geography "], (Erevan, 1963). 

G.C. Georgius Cyprus, Descriptio Orbis Romani, H. Gelzer ed. (Leipzig, 1890). 

Goth. Procopius, " The Gothic War ", Works, H.B. Dewing ed. and trans. (Cam- 

bridge, Mass.-London, 1919-1928), III-IV. 

H.S. Hierokles, Synekdemos, E. Honigmenn ed. and trans. (Brussels, 1939). 

L " Laterculus Polemii Silui " in Seeck, Not. Dig. 

ad L. " Collectio Sangermanensis, [Epistulae ad Leonem Imperatorem] ", AGO, 


M Mansi, Sacrorum Consiliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio, new ed. (Paris, 


M.S. Chronique de Michel le Syrien ..., J.B. Chabot ed. and trans. (Paris, 1899- 


N " Novellae ", R. Schoell and W. Kroll edd., CJC, III, 6th ed. (1912). 

N.D. Notitia dignitatum, O. Seeck ed. (Berlin, 1876). 

N.H. PHny, The Natural History, H. Rackam ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass.- 

London, 1938-1965). 

P. Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia, C. Muller ed. (Paris, 1901). 

Pers. Procopius, " The Persian Wars ", Works, H.B. Dewing ed. and trans. 

(Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1914), I. 

P.P. " Ex historia Petri Patricii ... ", I. Bekker and C. Niehbuhr edd., CSHB. 

S Strabo, The Geography, H.L. Jones ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass.- 

London, 1960-1961). 

St. Byz. Stephanus Byzantinus, Ethnika, A. Meinicke ed. (Berlin, 1849). 

S.O. Chabot, J.B., Synodicon Orientate (Paris, 1902). 


T Toumanoff, C, Studies in Christian Caucasian History (Georgetown, 1963). 

de Th. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, de Themabibus, A. Pertusi ed. (Vatican city, 


VL " Laterculus Veronensis " in Seeck, Not. Dig. 

X Xenophon, The Anabasis of Cyrus, C.L. Brownson ed. and trans. (Cam- 

bridge, Mass.-London, 1950-1961). 

ZM Zacharias Rhetor, Historia Ecclesiastica, E.W. Brooks trans. (Paris, 1921). 

(d.) diocese. 

(s.) strategy. 

(th.) theme. 

The coordinates given in Armenian letters in Eremyan's map have been transcribed 
into Latin characters, E.g. p-4: = B-4. 

Coordinates are invariably given in the customary order: Latitude- Longitude. 

For a translation of Eremyan's tables, Armenia, pp. 116-120; see Hewsen, Armenia, 
pp. 326-342. 






Abaran See Aparan. 

Abasgia Abasgoi Awazov as^arh E41, 101 ^ Basgun. 

Abazgoi Abkhazia T. 60 n. 58, 209, 266, 405 nn. 52, 

al-Abhaz 54, 496-497. 

Bazgun See Ch. XII, n. 14. 

Abasgoi . See Abasgia. 

Abazgoi See Abasgia. 

Abeleank' E.31, 118-xv/3 T. 220. 


al-Abhaz See Abasgia. 

Abkhazia Abasgia See Abasgia. 

Aboci See Asock' 

Acara See Adzharia. 

Acisene .See Akilisene. 

Acwerk Aras^ Ovea E.38, 117-vii/4 

Arisi D-6 

Adiabena See Adiabene. 

Adiabene Adiabena Hedayab E.49, 72 P. V, xvii, 4 T. 129, 131, 133, 148, 163-166, 

Nor Sirakan S. XI, v, 8 ; 197, 200, 305, 322 n. 76. 

Median March XI, xiv, 12 See Ch. XIV n. 60, and Nor 

Kadme ? XVI, i, 1, 19 Sirakan and Kadme. 

Adzharia A6ara Egr See Egr. 

Aegyptus P. IV, v 

Aegyptus I N. VIII 

Aegyptus II N. VIII 

Ainiana S. XI, vii, 1 
















E.32, 117-viii/17 

T. 197. 





E.50, 116-1/4 

P. V, xii, 6 

T. 73, 132, 137 n. 240, 166, 194 




S. XI, xii, 3, 

n. 209, 210, 218, 233 n. 291, 322 


Anaitis chora 

XI, xiv, 2, 5, 12, 16 

n. 76. 



XII, iii, 8 

See Ch. Ill nn. 1, 12-a-c, 18; 



V, 60 and Kozluk kazasi. 


Kozlican ? 
Kozluk kazasi ? 

Pers. I, xvii, 11 

M. IX, 391; XI, 613. 


E.32, 117-ix, 6 



Alanac erkir . 

. See Alania. 
. See Alandrot. 


Alandost . 



Al wan rot 

E.33, 117-viii/26 





Alanac erkir 


T. 199. 


Albak (Mec) 

Great Albak 

Baskale kazasi 

E.33, 117-viii/18 

G. 78, 38°10' X 44°10' 

T. 199-200, 219, 304, 305 n. 119. 

See Ch. XI, n. 71. 

Albak (P'ok'r) 

Lesser Albak 

E.33, 117-vi/ll 

T. 181 n. 143, 199-200. 





P. V, xi 

S. XI, iv ; xiv, 7 

T. 83, 102 n. 158, 185-186, 219, 
258 n. 362, 405 n. 54, 438, 467, 
476 n. 168, 477-478, 483-484, 


See Ch. IX, p. 173-174 and nn. 

21, 22a. 


Alewan E.32, 117-xi/10 


Aliovit Alit hovit E.33, 116-iv/13 T. 205-206. 

Alovit G-5 

AHt hovit See Aliovit. 

AHwn Ariwc E.33, 116-i/2 


Aljn Aljnik' Arzanene E.33-34, 116-iii 

Arjn Arabian March D-4 i-3 

be0 Arzon h^ 

Aljnik' See Aljn. § 

Alovit See Aliovit. ^ 

Alwank' Albania Albania E.34, 120 k! 

Arran B6-B8 *^ 

&an g 

Alwanrot See Alandfot. < 

Alwe E.34, 118-xii/4 9 

B-7 g 

Amel See Amol. 

Ami See Amol. 

Amol Amel E.115 


Anaetica Anaitis Chora Anahtakan N.H. V, xx See Akilisene. 


Anahtakan Anaetica Agat., v See Akilisene. 

Anaitis Chora Anaetica CD. XXXVI, xlviii See Akilisene. 

S. X, xiv, 16. K 


Angelene See Ingilene. 

Angel tun Angl Ingilene E.35, 116-m/l 





Angl See Angel tun. 

Anja x ijoi Anja* ftncayeci E.36, 117-viii/19 T. 220. 

G-6 See Ch. XI n. 60. 

Anjewacik' Anjowacik' Norduz E.36, 117-viii/ll T. 198-199, 200. 

Anjawacik' D-5 See Ch. XI pp. 247, 250 and 

Anjit* Hanjit' Anzitene E.36, 116-U/6 

Hanazit G-3 

Khandchoot £j 

Anjowacik' See Anjewacik'. S 

Antiochiane P. V, vi, 16 fel 

Anzetene See Anzitene. {-j 

Anzitene Anjit* P. V, xii, 8 T. 131, 137-138 n. 240, 166 * 

CJ, I, 29, 5. n. 63, 167, 170-172, 175-176, 

N. XXXI 241, 303. 

de B. xxxi, lviii See Ch. II nn. 9, 19b, 20. 

Apahunik' E.36, 116-iv/14 T. 132, 218. 

G-5 See Ch. XI n. 50a, 

Aparan Abaran See Nig. 

Arabastan See Arwastan. 

b§0 Arabaye See Arwastan. 

Arabia Augusta 

Libanensis N.D. 

Arabia Euphratensis See Euphratensis. 

Arabian March See Arzanene. 

Arac See Arac kohnn. 


Arackohnn Arac E.38, 118-xv/21 

Aragacotn E.38, 118-xv/10 T. 197. 


Arajin Hayk' See Armenia I. 

Afanfot E.37, 118-xii/l 

Arauene P. V, vi, 25 See Ch. IV n. 9. 

Af awaneank* See At aweneank' 

Afawelean See Ch. XI n. 16. 

A^aweneank* Arawaneank* See Ch. XI n. 16. 

Araxenon pedion Erasxajor S. XI, xiv, 4 See Arsarunik'. 

Afberani Arberan E.37, 117-viii/8 T. 205. 

G-5 See Ch. XI n. 57. 

Area* Arjax Karabag E.41, 117-x T. 129, 132, 148, 217 n. 250, 332. 

Arcax Sodk' B6-G7 See Ch. IX p. 174. 

Arcisakovit ArSisahovit Ercek E.40, 117-viii/4 See Ch. XI n. 56. 


Ardozakan See Artaz. 

Are Re E.115 

Arewik* E.39, 117-ix/ll 

Argastovit E.39, 117-v/7 


Argovteacovit See Argwet\ 

Argwelk' See Argwet\ 

Argwet* Argwelk c E.39, 119 

Argovteacovit A-5 
Arisi See Acwerk. 













Ariwc See Aliwn. 

Arjn See Aijn. 

Ark*ayic See Mokk* Aranjnak. 

Armenia I Arajin Hayk' CJ 1, 29, 5 T. 196, 331. 


ad L., H.S., G.C. 
Armenian Erkrord Hayk' E.51 N.D. T. 331. 

G-2 C.Th. XXX, xi, 2 

C.J. I, 29, 5 
Armenia III Errord Hayk' E.51 T. 331. 

Armenia IV Qorrord Hayk* E.57, 116-ii N. XXXI T. 331. 

tfpper Mesopotamia G3-G4 G.C. See Ch. IX n. 42. 

Armenia IV (Altera) Justinianea G.C. T. 129, 131, 173-175. 

M. XI, 992 See Ch. IX n. 42. 

Armenia Altera Satrapiae (Aed. Ill, i, 17) See Satrapiai. 

Armenia Interior Barjr Hayk' N. XXXI T. 148, 175, 193 and n. 208, 

See Ch. III. 
. See Armenia Maior. 
T. 72-73, 193 n. 208, 195-196, 
277, 286, 451 n. 53, 459 n. 98. 


Armenia Magna 
Armenia Maior 

Armenia Magna 
Buzurg Armenan 
Mec Hayk' 

P. V, xii 

S. XI, xii, 3-4 

XII, hi, 29 

xiv, 4-8 
CM Oe-Pc 

Armenia Megale . See Armenia Maior. 






Armenia Mikra See Armenia Minor. 

Armenia Minor P'ok'r Hayk' P. V, vi, 18 T. 72-73, 76 n. 84, 82-84, 277, 

Armenia Mikra S. XI, xii, 3 286, n. 35, 451 n. 53. 

Lesser Armenia XII, iii, 28/29 See Ch. IV nn. 1-2. 

Aed. Ill, iv, 15 
V.L., L. 
CM Md-Nc 
Armeniakon (th.) de Th. 

Afna 3rna B.L. 146-147 See Ch. XII n. 25. 

Arnoy-otn E.37, 117-viii/10 

Aros-pizan E.37, 117-xi/5 

Arran Ran See Albania. 

Arreson See Arreston. 

Arreston Arreson Rstunik' ? M.P. 393 See Ch. I p. 11. 

Arsamunik' Asmunik' E.40, 116-iv/4 T. 212. 

G-4 See Ch. XI nn. 41, 43. 

Arsarunik' Eras x ajor E.40, 116-iv/4 T. 202, 206, 207 n. 236, 210, 

Araxenon pedion G-4 324 n. 81. 

M.X II, xc See Ch. XI nn. 2, 2a. 

Arseac-p'or Aseac-p'or E.40, 118-xiv/8 

Artahan E.40, 119-1/3 


ArtanuJ See Klarjfet'i. 

Artaseseank' Artasezeank* Artawanean E.41, 117-vii/28 T. 232 n. 286. 

G-5 See Ch. XI nn. 63-64. 

Artasezeank* See Artaseseank'. 

Artawanean See Artaseseank* . 











t— ' 

__ _ __________ _ . , . . . „___ _ . . . ^ 

Artaz Ardozakan Sawarsam E.40, 117-viii/16 T. 197. ^ 

M.X II, lii See Ch. XI n. 59. 

Arwant'uni See Erwandunik\ 

Arwastan Arabastan be0 Arabaye S.0.272 T. 179. 

Arwenic jor E.37-38, 117-v/4 


Arxanene See Arzanene. 

Arzanene Arxanene Aijn S.0.272 A.M. XXV, xix, 9 T. 129, 131-132, 149-150, 163, 

Arzene be0 Arzon PP. xiv 165, 166 n. 63, 179-182, 183 

Arabian March CM Pe n. 147, 197, 199, 236, 248, 304- 

305, 468 n. 138. E* 

See Ch.II n.25; IX n. 16. g 

Arzene See Arzanene. 2 

be $ Arzon be Ostan Arzon Ostan S.0.272 See Arzanene. tt 

Arzn ^ 

Arzon Ostan See be Arzon. 

Aseac p*or See Arseac p*or. 

Asiana N.D., N. VIII 

ASmunik* See Arsamunik*. 

Asock' Aboci E.36, 118-xv/4 T. 185-186, 187 n. 175, 190, 191 

B-5 n. 199, 324 n. 81, 440 n. 16, 

444-446, 468-474, 489, 499. 
See Ch. XI n. 4. 
Asorestan Assyria E.38 See also Sophene. 


Aspakanuneac Jor See Aspakuneac Jor. 

Aspakuneac Jor Aspakanuneac Jor E.38, 116-iv/2 

Aspakunik' G-4 
Aspakunik' See Aspakuneac Jor. 

Aytwank' A(yt)rwank e E.35, 117-vi/5 


Azerbaijan #eeAtropatene. 

Aznawajor See Azwac jor. 


Aspurakan See Vaspurakan. 

Assyria See Asorestan. 

Astaunitis P. V, xii, 6 See Asthianene. 

Asthiane See Asthianene. 

Asthianene Astaunitis Hasteank' P. V, xii, 6 T. 131, 137-138 n. 240, 172 n. 95, 

Asthiane Gene kazasi C.J. 1, 29, 5 241, 442 n. 22, 458 n. 93. 

Astianikes £apakcur ? N. XXXI See Ch. I n. 27 ; II pp. 32, 35-37. 

Aed. Ill, iii, 7 

Atropatena See Atropatene. O 

Atropatene Atropatena Atrpatakan S. XI, xii, 4 T. 75, 131, 163-164, 232 n. 187, O 

Media Atropatene Azerbaijan xiv, 3 459 n. 98. k* 

See Ch. IX nn. 3, 8, 27. § 

Atrpatakan Atropatene E.38, 114-115 


Atrpatunik* See Trpatunik\ 

Awazov a§^arh See Abasgia. § 

Aygark* E.35, 117-vi/6 

Ayli Kurican E.35, 117-vii/l 

Ayrarat Ararat E.35, 118-xv T. 129, 132, 139, 148, 192, 197, 

B5-G6 199, 204-206, 215, 218, 220-222, 

230 n. 281, 322, 468. 
A(yt)rwank* See Aytwank\ 





Aznawac-jor Aznawajor E.31, 116-iii/7 

Azordac-p e or Kap c or E.32, 118-xiv/8 


Bagan .See, Bak'an. 

U6 Bagas S.O. 272 See Ch. IX n. 33. 

Bagrauandene Bagrewand P. V, xii, 9 T. 132, 137, 138 n. 240, 201-202, 

209, 218, 241, 309, 324. 
See Ch. XI nn. 2b, 20, 27, 27a. 

Bagsen See Basean. 

Bagrawand See Bagrewand. 

Bagrewand Bagrawand Bagrauandene E.42, 118-xv/6 

Bak'an Bagan Marand E.44, 117-viii/29 See Ch. XI n. 64. 

Bak'ran G-6 

Bak'ran See Bak'an. 

Balabitene Balabitena Balahovit C.J. 1, 29, 5 T. 131, 138 n. 240, 212, 241. 

Bilabetines Pasinler kazasi N. XXXI 

Aed. Ill, i, 26 
Balahovit Balahovit Belabitene E.43, 116-ii/4 

Palu kazasi ? G-3 

Balan rot ftot i BaJa E.43-44, 117-xi/4 

Balasakan Gargaracik' E.42-44, 114-115 See Ch. IX n. 13 ; XIV n. 73, 76. 

P'ay takaran B - 7 

Bazgun ? 
Kaspe ? 



i— i 


Balk' Meli dast E.44, 117-ix/9 

Barjr Hayk' Armenia Interior E.37, 116-i 

Basean Basen Basiane E.44, 118-xv/l 

Bagsen Phasiane 

Pasinler kazasi 

Basen See Basean. 

Basiane Basean X. IV, vi, 5 T. 218-219, 219 n. 254, 496. § 

Phasiane CMPd See Ch. XI nn. 2-3. g 

Pasinler kazasi § 

Basilisene See Orbalisene. g 

Baskale kazasi G. 78, 38°10'N X 44°10'E. ^ 

See Albak Mec. 2 

Basoropeda S. XI, xiv, 5 O 

Bazgun See Abasgia and Balasakan. w 

Bazunik' See Buzunik'. O 

Bel See Bex- cc 

Berdac p'or E.44-45, 118-xiv/2 


Berdajor See Berjor. 

Berjor Berdajor E.44, 117-x/3 

Be x Bel E.44, 105, 120 

Bix B-7 

Bilabetines See Balabitene. h-» 

Bithynia P. V, i i— ' 

N.D., V.L., L. * 

CM D-Fc 


Bodunik' Bogunik' E.45, 117-viu/3 

Budunik* G-5 

Bogunik' See Bodunik*. 

Bohio p'or E.45, 119-iv/3 

Bol x a Bo x a E.45, 118-xiv, 5 P. V, xii, 4 T. 204, 230 n. 78, 451 n. 53, 

Bu x a G-5 458 n. 93. 

See Ch. I n. 42. 
Bo x a P. V, xii, 4 . See Bofya 

Budunik* See Bodunik'. 

Bulan9 X See Bulanik'. 

Bulanik' Bulano x G. 109, 39°05'N X 42°05'E. 




Bulanyk See Hark'. 3 

Bulanyk See Bulanik'. j-j 

Bu x a See Bol x a. 

Buzunik' BaZunik' Norduz E.45, 117-viii/9 See Ch. XI p. 248; XII n. 31. 

BZunik' G-5 

Buzurg Armenan See Armenia Maior. 

Bzabde Seehed Zabde. 

Bznunik' E.45, 116-iv/ll T. 209-210, 213, 216, 324 n. 82. 

G-5 See Ch. XI n. 48. 

Bzunik* See Buzunik". 

Cahuk E.64, 117-vi/10 

Cakatk' E.64, 118-xv/ll See Ch. XI n. 1. 

Cakk* E.64, 118-xiv/9 

Calarzene See Katarzene. 



galdiran See Ch. XI p. 237. 

Calkotn Calkunik' Varaznunik' (1) E.56, 118-xv/7 T. 309 n. 32, 315, 319. 

Zachunuc G-5 See Ch. XI nn. 6, 19, 21, 23. 

Calkunik* See Calkotn. 

Camanene N.H. VI, 3 . See Chamanene. 

Oanet'i See Tzanika. 

Qapakcur Capljur Gen9 kazasi ? See Asthianene 

Capljur E.59 .See Asthianene. ^ 

Cappadocia P. V, Yi; CM I-Me O 

N. XXX k| 

Cappadocia I N.D. J^ 

Cappadocia II N.D. ►§ 

N. XXX % 

Cappadocia (Greater) See Cappadocia Taurica. % 

Cappadocia Pontica Cappadocia ad Pontem S. XII, iii, 2 See Ch. IV nn. 3-4. y 

Cappadocia Taurica Greater Cappadocia S. XII, iii, 12 

Cappadocia ad Taurum xii, 10-11 See Ch. IV n. 6. 

Caranitis N.H. V, xx ... See Karenitis. 

Caspiane See Kaspiane. 

Cataonia N.H. XI, iii See Kataonia. 

Cawdeayk' <>wdek c Zabdikene E.86 

Tur Abdin D-4 

Qawdek* See Qawdeayk*. 

Cawdk' S6dk\ £J 

Chaldia St. Byz. ** 









Haymana kazasi ? 

See Oh. IV nn. 3-4,8 

P.V,vi, 11 
S. XII, i, 4 
N.H. V, xx 
CM Id 

Chera See Her. 

Cholarzene Calarzene Klarjet'i P. V, xii, 4 T. 142, 188 n. 188, 322 n. 76, 

Katarzene ArtanuJ 334-335, 382, 434, 442 n. 22, 24, 

453 n. 62, 457 and nn. 89, 93, 
461 and n. 109, 462-468, 471- 
472, 474, 485-488, 491, 495-498. 

Chordzianene See Chorzane. 

Chorzane Chordziane Xorjayn S. XI, xiv, 4 T. 442 n. 22, 457 n. 93. 

Chorziane Aed. Ill, iii, 7 See Ch. Ill n. 1 ; V n. 60. 

Korzene CM Nd 



Chorziane See Chorzane. 

Cilicia See Kilikia. 

Clak SeeCtuk. 

Cluk Olak E.56, 117-ix/7 

Cobenor E.56, 119-v/l 

Cobep'or Cop'op'or E.56, 118-xiii/l 

Colchis Kolk'ise P. V, ix 

CM Pa 

Colopene See Kulupene. 

Colthene See Kolthene. 

i— i 


Commagene N.H. VI, iii See Kommagene. 

Cop'ac kolmn See Cop'k' Mec. 

Cop'k' Cop e k l Sahuni Sophene E.57 

Armenia IV G3 

Cop'k' Meo Cop'ac kolmn Sophanene E.57, 116-ii 

Cop'k' Sahuni Sahe Sophene E.57, H6-ii/5 

Sahunian Sophene G-3 

Cop'op'or . See Cobep e or. 

Corduene See Korduene. J§ 

CorrordHayk' Armenia IV E.57, 116-ii g 

Sophene G3-G4 g 

Cowarseank' See Cowars-rot. 



Cowas-fot Cowarseank' E.64, 117-viii/21 g 

Co wars rot G-6 O 

Cwasot m 

Culupene N.H. VI, iii o 

C^rasjmay E.87, 119-iii/10 bo 


Dalaf Elmali dere E.48, 116-iv/8 See Ch. XI n. 53. 


Dambvar See Dmbawand. 

Darachichak Varaznunik'(l) ? See Varaznunik' (1). 

Daranalia (d.) Daranalis Daranalik' CM Nd 

Analibla M. XI, 645. T. 233 n. 291. 

SeeCh.IIInn.l,4a,12d;Vn.60. _* 

Daranalik' Daranalia E.49, 116-1/1 oi 

Analibla G-3 

Daranalis See Daranalia. 

Dafni See Garni. 


be0 Dasen S.0. 272 See Dasn. 

Dasin See Dasn. 

Dasn Dasin be0 Dasen E.49 See Ch. IX n. 33. 


S.O. 272 
Dasnawork' Gastovor E.49, 116-iv/6 See Ch. XI n. 63. 

Degik* E.49, 116-ii/7 

Derjan Dersim Derxene E.49, 1 16-i/6 See Ch. Ill n. 1, 12a,14 ; V n. 60. 

G-4 % 

Dersim See Derjan. t=J 

Derxene Derzene Tercan kazasi S. XI, xiv, 5 3 

Xerxene Derjan N.H. V, xx p 

Tercan kazasi CM Od <* 

Derzene N.H. V, xx See Derxene. 

Dilumn See Dlmunk*. 

Diospontus Pontus Amasia 

Helenopontus L. 

Dhmink' Dilumn E.llo 

Dmbawand Dambvar E.115 

Dorek' See Gawrek*. 

Dwin ostan See Ostan Hayoc. 

Edaiab See Hedayab. 

Eger See Egr. 

Egeria , See Egr. 

Egr Egeria Adzharia E.50 

Eger B-4 


Ekeleac Akilisene E.50, 116-1/4 

Anahtakan G-3 

Kozlican ? 

Kozluk kazasi 
Ekelenzines M. IX, 391 ; XI, 613 See Akilisene. 

Elbak SeeAlbakMec. 

Elmali dere Dalaf G. 207, 39°25 ? X 40°35\ 

Eras^ajor See Arsarunik'. 1-3 

See ArSisakovit. hj 

Ercoy Ercwoy E.51, 119-vi/3 § 

B-6 _ § 

Ercwoy See Ercoy . *< 

Erestuni See kstunik*. ^ 

Erewark' E.51, 116-iv/12 g 

G-5 < 

Erit'unik* See Erwandunik\ 3 

Erkrord Hayk* See Armenia II. H 

Ernjak E.51, 117-ix/l 


Errord Hayk e See Armenia III. 

Erutak , See kotak. 

Erwandunik* Arwant*uni E.51, 117-viii/13 

Erit'unik* G-5 

Er x etV Xerhet'k* E.51, 116-iii/S 


i— i 
Ethne See Satrapiae. Oi 

Eufratesia See Euphratensis. * 



Euphratensis Arabia Euphratensis N.D., N. VIII 

Ewtnp'orakean E.51 

bagink' G-8 

Hncayeci gncayni See Anja^i jor. 


ancayni See Anja#i jor. 

ancaynock* See Anjaxi jor. 

gfnay See Afna. 

Foenices See Phoenicia. 

Gabeleank' Kalzwan E.46, 118-xv/2 T. 220-221. > 

Kagizman kazasi G-5 hj 

Gabit'ean See Gawet'an. jgj 

Galatia P. V, iv £ 

S. XII, v, 1 * 

N.H. VI, iii ^ 

N.D., N. VIII 
CM Fe-Ic 
Galatia II N. VIII 

Galatia Sahitaris N.D. 

Gangark* See Kangark\ 

Gardman E.46, 118, xii/6 T. 216, 258, 475-478, 480-484, 

B-6 485 n. 211, 487 n. 224, 499. 

Gargaracik' Karkar See Balasakan. 

Gargaracwoc dast 

Garines See Karenitis. 

Garni Darni E.46, I17-viii/7 See Ch. XI n. 57. 

Garni Bazar See Mazaz. 


Garsauritis P. V, vi, 13 

S, XII, i, 4 
N.H. VI, iii 

Gastavor See Dasnawork*. 

Gawet'an Gabit e ean E.46, 117-viii/30 


Gawreg See Gawrek\ 

Gawrek' Gawreg Dorek 1 E.41, 116-ii/8 

Gazrikan Gazrikean E.46, 117-viii/31 


Gazrikean See Gazrikan. 

Gelak'unik' Gelark'anunik' E.47, 117-ix/4 

Gelan Gilan E.47 


Gelark c anunik* See Gelak'unik'. 

Gene kazasi Asthianene G. 234, 38°45'N X 40°35'E. 


Gentes See Satrapiae. 

Georgia . .See Iberia. 

Gilan See Gelan. 

Gogarene Gugark* S. XI, xiv, 4-5 T. 102 n. 158, 129, 131-133, 

Iberian March 155 n. 14, 162 tl 40, 165, 177 

Moschic March n. 115, 183-192, 217, 236, 334, 

432, 449, 452, 457-459, 459 n. 48, 
467-474, 483, 487, 489, 495 
n. 262, 499. 

Lang, Review, ^^calum XLII, 
1 (1967) pp. 194-196. 
See Ch. XIV n. 76. 









_„^ - c* 


Gogovit See Kogovit. 

Gokan See Gugan. 

Golthene See Gotten. 

Goh n Golthene E.48, 117-viii/34 See Ch. XI n. 65. 

G-6 Not to be confused with Kott 

in Arca^ q.v. 
Gordyene Korcek' P. V, xii, 9 T. 57 n. 54, 75, 102 n. 158, 129, 

S. XI, xiv, 3 148, 166, 179, 181-182, 202, 468 

XVI, 1, 24 n. 138. 


Gorgovatisx See Gorot'is-xew. j> 

Gorot*is-xew Gorgovatis^ E.48, 119-iii/l g 

A-5 Iz} 

Greater Albak See Albak Mec. 2 

Greater Armenia See Armenia Maior. 

Greater Cappadocia See Cappadocia Taurica. 

Greater Sophene See Sophanene. 

GrSunik* See KrSunik'. 

Gugank' Gukan E.48, 117-viii/25 See Ch. XI n. 63. 

Gokan G-5 

Gugark* Gogarene E.48, 118-xiii 


Gukan See Gugank*. 

Gurzan Z.M. 144 See Iberia. 

Gzel See Gzefy. 

Gze* x Gzel E.47, 116-iii/9 

Haband I E.61-62, 117-ix/18 



Haband II See Miws Haband. 

Haeretica See Hairetike. 

Hairetike Haeretica P. V, vi, 18 

Hakkari G. 268, 37°35'N X 43°50 , E. 

Hanazit See Anjit\ 

Handsith See Anjit'. 

Hani E.62, 117-xi/6 


Hanjit' See Anjit\ 

Hanzith See Anjit\ 

Har61ank c Harclawnk* E.62, 117-x/6 


Harclawnk* See Har61ank\ 

Hark' Charka Bulanik kazasi E.62, 116-iv/9 See Ch. XI n. 45, 52. 

Hasteank' Asthianene E.62, 116-ii/2 

Gene kazasi G-4 

Hawnunik' E.62, ll$-xv/4 T. 215 n. 246. 

Haymana kazasi Chamanene? G. 283, 39°25'N X 32°35'E. 

Hayoc jor E.62 

Hedayab Edaiab Adiabene E.49, 72 

Nor Sirakan 
Median March 
Helenopontus Diospontus N.D. 

Pontus Amasia N. VIII, XXVIII 

CM Ac 





i— i 










Xerakan dast 


Honoriada ' 






i.63, 117-vii/9 


L., N. VIII 



S. XI, iii 

Later fused with Zarewand into 


See also Zarewand. 

See Honoriada. 
See Osrhoene. 

Iberian March 



Ispir kazasi 
Jawaxet e i . 



Angel tun 

C.J. I, 29, 5 


E.54, 117-v/l 

E.54, 117-V/3 



Jova^k 1 

.See Gogarene. 

T. 131, 137-138 n. 240, 166 
n. 63, 167, 170-172, 175-177, 
224, 241, 297-303, 324 n. 81. 
See Ch. II n. 25b. 

G. 318, 40°30'N X 41°00'E. 
.See Jawa^k*. 


Jork e 


E.78, 119-i/4 

E.78, 117-V/8 

E.64, 117-ix/10 

E.63, 118-v/3 




Jowa^k* See Jawaxk\ 

Justinianea See Armenia IV Altera. 

Kadme Korduene ? Adiabene ? E.86 T. 224-225 and n. 270, 233 and 

n. 289, 236. 

See Ch. XIV n. 60. 
Kagizman kazasi Gabeieank' G. 322, 40°10'N X 43°05'E. 

Kal Kel E.89, 116-iii/4 


Kalarjk* See Klarjet'i. h 

Kalarson See Klarjet'i. ^ 

Kel SeeK&l. § 

Kalzwan See Gabeleank'. ^ 

Kamisene S. XII, iii, 37. ^ 

Kangark' Gangark* E.57-58, 118-xiii/6 '^ 

Kankark* B-6 g 

Kankark' See Kangark\ < 

Kapkoh k'ustak K'apkolk' E.114-115. g 

Kapor See Azeac-p'or. fej 

Karabag* See Area*. 

Karat'unik* See Kart c unik\ 

Karayazi kazasi Towarcatap* G. 359, 39°55' X 42°05\ 

Kareniti* Caranitis Karin S. XI, xiv, 5 T. 193 nn. 207, 209, 233 n. 291, 

Garines N.H. V, xx 458 n. 98. 

CMPd See Ch. Ill nn. 1, 12a-b, 14; 

V n. 60. 
Karin Karenitis E.58, 116-i/0 ^ 

G-4 S 

Karkar See Gargaracik\ * 

KartWik* Karat'unik 4 Saraponik' E.58, 117-vi/9 









Kaspe .... 

t See Kaspiane. 





S. XI, iv, 5 
xiv, 5 

T. 129. 132, 148, 232 n. 287. 



P. V, vi, 22 
S. XI, xii, 2 

N.H. VI, iii 




P. V, 12, 4 









Pers. I, xvii, 11 

See Akilisene. 


E.59, 116-iii/5 

1— 1 



Khandchoot . 

.See Anjit*. 

Khordzen . 

.See Xorjayn. 

Kigi kazasi 


G. 386, 39°20'N X 40WE. 



P. V, vii 
CM I - Jg 

Kilikia (I) 


Kilikia (II) 







E.59, 118-xiii/9 

T. 142, 188 n. 188, 322 n. 76, 
334-335, 382, 439, 442 nn. 22, 
24, 452, 453 n. 62, 457 nn. 89.. 

93, 461 and n. 109, 462-468, 
471-472, 474, 485-488, 491, 495- 


Kochisar Morimene ? G. 411 (7) 39°52' X 37°24\ 

See Ch. IV p. 58, also Cities. 
Kogovit Gogovit E.59, 118-xv/13 T. 200, 202, 309, 321-322 and 

G-5 n. 77, 342-343, 398. 

See Ch. XI, nn. 24-25. 
Kol Kola E.59, 118-xiv/l T. 457. 

Kolbop'or E.60, 118-xiii/2 


Kolk'ise See Colchis. 

Kolt' Ko x t Kolthene? E.60, 117-x/12 T. 259. 

B-7 Not to be confused with Goltn 

in Vaspurakan. 
Kolthene Colthene Goltn ? P. V, xii, 4 T. 105 n. 160, 203, 204 n. 230, 

Kolt ? 323, 451 n. 2. 

Kommagene Commagene P. V, xiv, 8 

S. XI, xii, 2 
N.H. VI, iii 
CM L - Mf 
Kor Kore D.A. I. See Ch. XI nn. 28, 52. 

Kore See Kor. 

KorSayk' See Korcek'. 

Korfiek' KorSayk* Gordyene E.60, 117-vi 


Korde See Korduene. 

Kordrik' See Tmorik*. 

Korduene Corduene Korduk' A.M. XXV, xix, 9 T. 131, 180-182 and nn. 140, 

Korde be0 Qardu P.P. xiv 142, 144, 146. 










„ , * 

Korduk' Korduene E.60, 117-vi/l 

be0 Qardu D-5 

Korzene See Chorzane. 

Kosakan See Kovsakan. 

Kotayk' Kotek Zangi bazar ? E.60, 118-xv/6 See Ch. XI p. 238. 

Kotaia B-6 

Kotek See Kotayk'. 

Kovsakan Kosakan E.60, 117-ix/12 

Kusakan G-7 

Ko x t' SeeKoh*. ^ 

Kozli5an Kuzichan Akilisene ? See Ch. Ill p. 47. ^ 

Kozluk kazasi ? S 

Kozluk kazasi Akilisene ? G. 428, 38°12'N X 41°29'E. g 

Kr6unik' KrkcuiuV E.61, 117-viii/22 See Ch. XI n. 62. X 

Grcunik* G-6 < 


Krkcunik* See KrSunik*. 

Kulanovit E.61, 117-viii/5 

Kulupene Colopene S. XII, iii, 37 See Ch. Ill n. 20. 

Culupene N.H. VI, iii 


Kurican See Ayli. 

Kusakan See Kovsakan. 

K*ust-i-p c arenk* K'usti P'arnes' E.88, 90, 117-x/10 NB Eremyan's division into two 

B-6 districts. 

K*usti P'arnes See K'ust-i-p c arenk\ 

Kuzichan See Kozli&an. 


Lauiansene P. V, vi, 24 


ii, 10; 
iii, 37 

CM Ld 
Lazika P. V, ix, 4 T. 255-257, 363-364, 365 n. 32, 

Goth. IV, ii, 3 388, 405 n. 52. 



Lesser Albak See Albak P'ok'r. 2 

Lesser Armenia See Armenia Minor. O 

Lesser Siwnik See Sisakan-i-Kotak k} 

Lesser Sophene See Sophene. ^ 

Lower Sophene See Sophanene. 

Lykaonia Lycaonia P. V, vi, 15 £d 


CM Ge - Hf g 

Machurton See Mahkert tun. t=J 

Mahkert tun Machurton al-Maharda,n E.64, 118 T. 165, 166 nn. 58, 59, 218, M 

be0 Mahqart D-6 459 n. 98. 

Revanduz S.0. 272 See Ch. IX n. 33. 

be0 Mahqart S.0. 272 See Mahkert tun. 

Malatya kazasi Melitene G. 455, 38°25'N X 38°20 , E. 

Manali See Mananali. 

Mananali Manali E.64-65, 116-i/5 See III n. 1; 16; 

G-4 V n. 60. 

Manralik' Manraloi E.65 SJ 

A-5 "3 

Manraloi Manralik' P. V, ix, 4 
Maperkiton See Mareptikon. 



____„ o 


Marac amur as^arh E.65, 69, 115, 118 * 

Agat\ cxx 
Mardalik' E.65, 116-iv/5 See Ch. Ill n. 1. 

Mardastan Mardock' E.65, 117-viii/15 

Marducayk' G-6 

Mardock' See Mardastan. 

Mardpetakan Mareptikon ? T. 131, 139, 169 and n. 81, 170 

Sephakan ? n. 85, 200, 231 n. 285. 

See Ch. I p. 11. 

Marducayk* See Mardastan. . 

Mareptikon Maperkiton Mardpetakan? M.P. See Ch. I p. 11. *Q 


Man E.65, 117-vii/2 § 

B-6 p 

Mark' See Media. <J 

Maseac otn E.65, 118-xv/12 

Mazaz Garni bazar ? E.64, 118-xv/17 See Ch. XI p. 238. 


MecAiank' See Mecirank*. 

MecAlbak See.Albak Mec. 

Mec Hayk' Armenia Maior E, 66-70 

Mec Kwank* Mec Kwenk* E.66, 117-x/5 

Mecirank* Mec Alank* E.66, 117-x/4 

Mecnunik c E.70, 117-viii/23 



Media Mark* P. V, xii, 1 

S. XI, xiii 

Media Atropatene See Atropatene. 

Median March See Adiabene. 

Mehnunik' Mehenunik e B.L. 146-147 T. 232 n. 286. 

Mefa' dast See Balasakan. 

Melitene Melitine Malatya kazasi P. V, xii, 21 

S. XII, i, 4 

N.H. VI, iii 

ad L. 

Melitine H.S., G.C. See Melitene. 

Mesopotamia Mijaget N.D., N. VIII 

CM Mg-Ph 

Mesopotamia Upper See Armenia IV. 

Mija Vijac E.70, 117-v/5 


Mijaget See Mesopotamia. 

Miws Haband Sisakan i Kotak E.70, 117 

Mokk' Moxoene 

bed Moksaye E.71, 1 16-i/5 

Mokk* Aranjnak Ark'ayic E.41, 71, 117-v/6 

bed Moksaye S.0. 272 See Mokk\ 

Morimene Murimene Kochisar ? S. XII, i, 4 See Ch. IV p. 58. 


N.H. VI, iii 











______ ^. 

Moschic March See Gogarene. 

Mot'olank* Ot'olank* E.71, 117-vi/7 

Moxoene Mokk' S.0. 272 A.M. XXV, xix, 9 T. 129, 148, 166 n. 63, 180, 

beflMoksaye CMEe 181 n. 140, 197 n. 222, 200, 

202, 468 n. 138. 
Mrit E.71, 119 

Mrul E.71, 119 

B ' 4 . ► 

Mughan See Mu^ank 1 . htf 

Mukan See Mu^ank'. „ 

Munzur See Muzur. y 

Murimene See Morimene. ^ 

Muxank' Mukan Mughan E.71, 117-x/7 < 

Mxank* G-7 

Muzur Manjur Muzuron E.71, 116-i/3 

Mzur G-3 

Muzuron Muzur G.C. 

M^ank' See Muxank'. 

Mygdonia See Arwastan. 

Mzur See Muzur. 

Nig Aparan E.72, 118-xv/15 T. 198, 205-205, 207. 

Nigal E.72, 110, 119 

Nihorakan . See Nixorakan. 


Ni^orakan Nihorakan Daherrakan E.72, 118 T. 165. 

deh Nahirakan D5-D6 See Ch. IX pp. 175-178. 

be0 Nohadra Nohadra S.O., 272 See Ch. IX nn. 33, 35. 

Norduz Anjewacik' G. 489, 37 51'N X 43°32'E. 

Buzunik' See Ch. XI p. 248. 

Nor girakan Nosirakan Adiabene E.27, 49, 52, 59, See Ch. IX pp. 172-173,175-178. 

Sirakan Median march 64, 67, 72, 77 

Nosirakan See Nor Sirakan. 

Notartay See bed Nohadra. 

Ok'ale Ok'al E.76, 118-xiv/6 

Orbalisene Basilisene P. V, vi, 18 T. 54 n. 49, 451 n. 53. 

See Ch. Ill n. 25. 
Orbisene P. V, vi, 18 » 

Orisank* See Orsirank*. 

Ormizd Peroz Ormzdperoz E.75, 117-xi/9 


Ormzdperoz See Ormizd Peroz. 

Orsene P. V, vi, 18 See Ch. Ill n. 25. 

Orsirank* Orisank* E.75, 117-vi/8 

Orzianines G.C. See Chorzane. 

Osrhoene Osroene N.D., N. VIII See Ch. Ill n. 25. 

Hosdroene CM Mf 

Osroene See Osrhoene. 

Ossetia See Alania. 

be0 Ostan £eebe0Arzon. 

Ostan Hayoo Dwin Ostan E.49, 74, 116-xv/19 

B6-G6 See Ch. XII n. 30. 






I— I 





, i— i 

Otene Utile' P. V, xii, 4 T. 129, 132, 148, 220, 259, 467, ^ 


Other Armenia See Armenia Altera. 

Ot'olank* See Mot*olank\ 

Oves See Acwerk. 

Packank* Panckank 4 E.77, 117-x/9 

Parsakank* G-7 

Paf Iagonia See Paphlagonia. 

Palanakan tun See Pamatun. 

Palankatun See Palnatun. 

Palestina I N. VIII 

Palestina II N. VIII 

Palestina III N. VIII ^ 

Palestina Salutaris N.D. 

Palinatun See Palnatun. 

Palines Palnatun G.C. T. 212 n. 240. 

Palnatun Palankatun Palines E.76-77, 116-ii/3 See Ch. Ill n. 1. 

Palanakan tun G-3 

Palu kazasi Balahovit ? G. 505, 38°40' X 39°55'E. 


Palun See Palunik*. 

Palunik' Palun Palu kazasi ? E.76 (1), 117-viii/24 T. 212. 


Panckank* See Packank'. 

Paphlagonia Paf iagonia N.D., N. XXIX 

V.L., L. 
CM Gb-Jb 

P'arnes See K'ust i p*arenk\ 

Parsakank* See Packank*. 

i— ( 


Parskahayk' Persarmenia E.77, 117-vii T. 129, 148, 152, 164 n. 48, 197. 

Parspatunik' Parspunik* E.77, 117-viii/26 See Ch. XI n. 64. 

Patsparunik' G-7 


Parspunik e See Parsparunik*. 

Partizac p'or E.77, 118-xiv/3 

B-5 O 

Parwar E.77, 119-iv/4 Q 

Pasinler kazasi Pasen Basean G. 507, 40°00'N H 41°40'E. Kj 

Basiane J^ 

Pasparunik* See Parsparunik*. 

Patakaranes See P c aytakaran. £d 


P'aytakaran Patakaranes Kaspe E.88, 117-xi § 



Pentarchy See Satrapiae. 

Persarmenia See Parskahayk' 

Pharangion Pers. II, xxix, 4 See Suspiritis. 

Phasiane X. IV, vi, 5 See Basiane. 

Phauene See Phaunitis. 

Phaunitis Phauene Saunitis S. XI, xiv, 4 

Phoenicia Foenices N.D. 

Phrygia P. V, ii, 17 T. 53 n. 49. 


Patsparunik' See Parspatunik'. 

Kazbk' G7-G8 % 

CM Df-Fd % 


Phrygia Pacatiana N. VIII 

P.V,iv,9; v,7 
Phrygia Salutaris N. VIII 

Piank* E.77, 117-x/8 

Pisidia N. VIII, XXIX 

CM E-Ff 
P'ok'r Hayk' Armenia Minor E.88-89 

Pontica (d.) N.D. 

Pontus P. V, i 

S. XII, in, 1-2, 10-19 

CM Jc-Pb 
Pontus Amasia Diospontus S. XII, iii, 38 

Helenopontus L. 

Pontus Cappadocicus P. V, vi, 5, 8 T. 450 n. 53. 

xii, 2 

Pontus Galaticus P. V, vi, 3, 8 

CM Jc 
Pontus Polemoniacus P. V, vi, 4, 8 

N.D., V.L., L. 

C.J. I, 29, 5 

be0 Qardu S.0. 272 See Korduene. 

beO Rahimai See be0 Rehime. 

Ramonin (d.) S.O. 272 See Ch. IX n. 33. 

Ran See Albania. 

Re „ See Are. 

J— i 







bed Rehime be0 Rahimai Rehimene S.O. 272 

Rehimene Rehimena bed Rehime A.M., XXV, xix, 9 T. 180, 182 n. 147. 

Revanduz See Mahkert tun. 

fcostak See ftotak. 

fcotak fcostak E.63 See Ch. XII nn. 27, 28. 

Erutak See also Zarewand and Her. 

ftot-i-Bala See Balan-fot. 

kotkrcunik' See Kr6unik\ 

kot-Parcean kot-Pacean E.79, 118-xii/3 


&ot-Pacean See ftot Parcean. 

kstunik' Erestuni Arreston ? E.79, 117-viii/l T. 213 n. 242. 

ftwan ftwel E.l 14-115 

Rwel See kwan. 

Sacasena See Sakasene. 

Saharunik' T. 214 and n. 243. 

See Ch. XI p. 241. 

Sahe See Sophene. 

Sahib as-Serir See Albania. 

Sahunian Sophene See Sophene. 

Sakasen Sikasen Sakasene E.73, 118-xii/7 

Sakasene Sacasena Sakasen P. V, xii, 4 T. 220, 467 n. 128, 482 and 

S. XI, xiv, 4 n. 199. 

Salagomk' Satgom E.73, 116-i/8 See Ch. Ill n. 1. 

Satgamk* B-4 

Salajor See Salnoy-jor. 

Salgamk' See Salagomk*. 






Salnoy-jor Salajor E.79, 116-iii/10 

Sanojor G-4 

Sanasunitai Sasun T. 210. 

Sanasunk' See Sasun. 

Sancan E.73, 115 


Sanojor See Salnoy jor. 

Saraponik* See Kart c unik\ 

Sarauene S. XI, i, 4 

CM Jd 
Sargaurasene P. V, vi, 12 t> 

S. XI, i, 4 h§ 

11,6 ^ 

CM Ke g 

Sarur dast E.73, 118-xv/20 * 

G-6 < 

Saspeiros See Suspiritis. 

Sasun Sanasunk' Sanasunitai E. 79, 116-iii/ll 


Satgom See Salagomk*. 

Satrapiae Armenia Altera C. J., 1, 29, 5 T. 131-135, 137, 138 n. 240, 

Ethne N. XXXI 170-175, 197. 

Gentes Aed. Ill, iv, 17 See Ch. II; V n. 66. 


Saunitis See Phaunitis. 

Sawarsakan See Sawarsam. 

Sawarsam Sawarsakan Artaz ? M..X. II, Ixii See Ch. XI n. 59. 

Sawdk' SeeSodk'. 

Sawaedk' See §awset\ 


Sawset* Sawsedk* E.73, 119-i/2 

Sephakan Mardpetakan ? See Ch. IX n. 38 ; XI nn. 66, 

Vaspurakan 66a. 

Sepuhrakan See Vaspurakan. 

Sikasen See Sakasen. 

&irak Sirakene E. 73-74, 118-xv/8 

Siiregel B-5 

Sirakan See Nor Sirakan. 

Sirakene Sirak P. V, xii, 4 T. 202, 206 

Siiregel See Ch. XI nn. 2c-d, 3. 

Sisagan See Siwnik\ 

Siaa]an See Siwnik'. 

Sisakan Z.M. 144 See Siwnik'. 

Sisakan i Kotak Sisakan Ostan Lesser Siwnik* E.70, 117 

Miws Haband 
Siwnik' Sisakan Sunitai E.81, 117-ix T. 129, 131-132, 137, 148, 214 

Sisajan B6-G7 n. 244, 241, 323, 332. 

SeeCh.IX nn. 13b, 14-15, XIV 
n. 72. 
Sodk' Cawdk' Sodukene E.80 See Ch. X pp. 194,199,230. 

Sawdk' Arca^ B-6 Not to be confused with 

Zawdk' Cawdek' q.v. 

Sodukene Sodk' P. V, xii, 4 T. 182 n. 146. 

Sof See Sophene. 

Sophan-aye See Sophanene. 




I— I 


i— « 










Copac kohnn 
Cop'k' Mec 
Greater Sophene 
Lower Sophene 

C.Th. XX, xviii 
C.J. I, 29, 5 
Aed. Ill, ii, 2 

T. 131, 137-138, n. 240, 139, 
166 n. 63, 167-168, 170-171, 
173 n. 103, 174, 175, 179, 237 
n. 306, 241, 304. 




Cop'k' Sahuni 
Lesser Sophene 

iii, 1 

P. V, xii, 6 
S. XI, xii, 3-4 

See Ch. II nn. 20a, 21-23b. 

T. 131, 137-138 n. 240, 166-167 
and n. 63, 170 n. 88, 235 n. 306, 

Upper Sophene 
Sahunian Sophene 

xiv, 2 
XII, ii, 1 
C.J. I, 29, 5 

241, 285-287, 298, 304-305. 
Bee Ch. II nn. 20a, 21-24. 
Used both as a restrictive and 






de B. i 

a general toponym. 

See also Asorestan. 

Soragyal . 

Syrian March 


.See Suregel. 

SotV .... 



E.81, 117-xi/8 



Ispir kazasi 

E.81, 116-i/7 

Pers. I, xv, 1 

Supani .... 

.See Sophanene. 

Siiph .... 

. See Sophene. 







X. VII, viii, 25 

G. 578, 40°45'N X 43°36'E. 
T. 131, 137-138 n. 240, 202, 
233 n. 291, 241, 315, 321-322 


Ispir kazasi S. XI, xiv, 9 n. 76, 323 n. 77, 81, 326, 342, 455 

Pers. II, xxix, 4 n. 73, 456 n. 77, 464 n. 117, 

CM Oc. 466 n. 123, 467 n. 126. 

See Ch.I n.43; III n. 12a. 

Syria I N. XX 

Syria II N. VIII 

Syria, Coele N.D. 

Syria Salutaris N.D. 

Syrian March See Sophene. § 

Tamberk' Tambet' E.84, 117-vii/6 g 

Tambet* See Tamberk*. g 

Tamoritis Tmorik' T. 200, 202, 322, 323 n. 78. 


Kordrik' 2 

Tankriayn See Taygrean. G 

Tanuterakan tun See Ch. IX pp. 180-182. w 

Tao Tayk' See Tayk\ o 

Taparastan See Taprastan. m 

T'ar See T*awr. 

Taprestan Taparastan E.114-115. 

Taraunitis Tarawn Pers. II, xxv, 35 T. 132, 202, 209-210, 212, 215, 

CM Pe 218, 314, 324 n. 81, 351. 

See Ch. XI nn. 29-30, 34. 
Tarawn Taron Taraunitis E.85, 116-iv/3 


Taron $ee Tarawn. t-« 

Taruberan Tawruberan E.85, 116-iv T. 129, 132, 148, 199, 205 n. 234, 3 

Turuberan G4-G5 209,212,312. 

See Ch. XI n. 30. 









T'awr T'ar 



Taxtin Takhtin 

Taygrean Tankriayn 



E.85, 119-V/4 

E.85, 116-iii/6 

E.53, 119-ii/3 


Tercan kazasi 

Thracia (d.) 


T'or . . . 



E.84, 117-viii/31 

E.84, 117-xiv 





E.53, 119-vi/4 

P. V, xii, 8 



Kordrik 1 


.See Taruberan. 
See Ch. XI n. 3b. 

T. 129, 131-132, 148, 202, 204- 
205, 209-210, 211 n. 238, 231 
n. 285, 324 n. 81, 439-445, 450, 
452-457, 460 n. 98, 467, 470, 
485-486, 491-498. 
See Ch. Ill n. 24a; XI n. 31. 
G. 595, 39°45'N X 40°25'E. 


.See T'ofnawan. 


T'ornawan Tonrawan E.53, 117-viii/19 

Tosp Tosb Thospitis E.86, 117-viii/2 

Towarcatap' Karayazi kazasi E.86, 116-iv/7 See Ch. XI n. 53. 

T'rabi Trap'i E.54, 117-vii/3 


Trap'i See TYabi. 

Tt&Il Tn'alet'i E.54, 119-v/6 

Tri E.86, 118-xii/2 


Tnalet*i See Trelk\ 

Trpatunik' Atrpatunik* E.86, 117-viii/12 T. 221, 235 n. 301. 

Trunik' See Ch. XI n. 75. 

Tugk'atak See Tus K ustak. 

TurAbdin Tufapdin Cawdeayk' E.86 

Zabdlkene D-4 

Turuberan See Taruberan. 

Tus K'ustak Tu?k*atak E.86, 118-xii/5 

Tyanitis P. V, vi, 17 

S. XII, i, 4 
Tzanika Canet'i Goth. IV, iii, 3 T. 255. 458-460 n. 98. 

Aed. Ill, vi, 1, 18 
Tzophene N. XXXI See Sophene. 




I— I 





. , , . oo 

Tzophanene N. XXXI See Sophanene. * 

Upper Sophene See Sophene. 

Urc Urcajor E.76, 118-xv/21 T. 222. 

G-6 See Ch. XI n. 4d. 

Urcajor See Urc. 

Utik' Uitia Otene E.75-76, 118-xii 


Vakunik* See Vaykunik\ 

Vanand Upper Basean E.82, 118-xv/9 T. 215. 

B-5 See Ch. XI n. 2a. 

Varaznunik' (1) Darachichak ? E.82 (1) 118-xv/18 T. 222. 

Calkunik' B-6 See Ch. XI nn. 54, 76. ^ 

Varaznunik' (2) Vaznunik' E.82 (3) 116-ii/10 See Ch. XI n. 54. H 

G-4 § 

Varaznunik' (3) Vaznunik' E.82 (2) 117-viii/33 See Ch. XI n. 76. p 

Vizanunik' B-6 <1 

Varjan See Iberia. 

Vaspurakan Aspurakan Sepuhrakan E.82, 117-viii T. 129, 131-132, 148, 197, 200, 

G5-G6 202-206, 212, 215, 220-222, 323 

nn. 78, 81, 331-332, 381. 
See Ch. IX n. 38 ; XI nn. 66, 66a. 

Vayc See Vayoc jor. 

Vaykunik* Vakunik 1 E.82, 117-x/2 

Vayoc jor Vayc E.82, 117-ix/3 


Vaznunik* See Varaznunik* (2, 3). 

Vijac See Mija. 

Virk' Vefia Iberia E. 104, 119 

Varjan B5-B6 


Vizanunik' See Varaznunik* (3) and Ch, XI 

n. 76. 
Xancixe Xanicx E.55, 119-iv/5 


Xanicx See Xancixe. 

Xar Her, 

XerhetV .Er x etV. 

Xerk E.55, 119-vi/2 

Xorasan k'ustak Khorrasan E.114 

Xorjayn Xorjean Chorzane 

Xorjen Kigi kazasi E.55, 116-ii/l 

Khordzen G-4 

Xorjean See Xorjayn. 

Xorjen See Xorjayn. 

Xorwaran k'ustak E.114-115 

Xor x ofunik' Bulanik? E.55, 116-iv/16 T. 208-209. 

Xoyt' E.55, 116-iv/l T. 312. 

G-5 See Ch. XI n. 44. 

Xerxene S. XI, xiv, 5 See Derxene. 

beflZabde Bzabde S.0. 272 See Zabdikene. 

Zabdiane A.M., XXV, xix, 9 See Zabdikene. 

Zabdikene Zabdiane be0 Zabde A.M. XXV, xix, 9 T. 131, 166 n. 63, 180, 182 

Cawdeayk' P. P, xiv n. 146. 

Tur Abdin 

Zachunuc See Calkotn. 

Zangi bazar Kotayk' ? See Ch. XI p. 238. 








Zarawand Zarewand E.51, 117-vii/8 T. 305 n. 119. 

G-6 Later fused with Her into 

ftotak q.v. 
Zarehawan E.52, 117-vii/7 T. 293, 305 n. 119, 310 n. 32. 


Zarewand See Zarawand. 

Zawdk' SeeSodk'. 


B. Cities - Towns - Villages 

The following abbrevations were used in this section in addition to those previously given : 

I. A. Itinerarium Antonini 
T.P. Tabula Peutingeriana 
M. Miller, C, Itineraria Bomana (Stuttgart, 1916). 


Abaxa Auaxa Awaz N.D. See Ch. V n. 15a. 


Adamakert See Hadamakert. 

Aeliana Arna ? N.D. 

Afision See Eis. 

Af§in Yarpuz G. 7 U. 341 B IV 

Arabissos? 38°15' X 36°55' 

Uarsapa ? 
Afumon Eum ? See Ch. I nn. 17, 17a, 19a. 

Agil SeeEgil. 

Akbas Aqba Anosarvan-Kala ? See Ch. I nn. 14- 16a. 

Akcan Olakan G. 16 (2) 

38°53' X 41°34' U. 340 A III T. 209. 

Akn See Egin. 

Alacahan Alaja^an Aranis G. 26 

Aladja Han 39°02' x 37°37' 

E. 37 E. G-2 

Aladarariza See Olotoedariza. 

Aladja Han See Alacahan. 

Alaja^an See Alacahan. 

Alaleisos See Ch. I n. 21a. 

Aliorsk' See Ch. XI n. 49. 









Aliws See Ch. Ill n. 6. ** 

Alki Elki E. 32, 60 E. G-5 

Alvar G. 35 (2) U. 340 A II 

39°56' x 41°37' 

Amadia E. 34 E. D-5 

Amaras See Amaraz. 

Amaraz Amaras E. 34 E. G-7, AA 106 See Ch. IX n. 22. 

Amaseia See Amasia. 

Amasia Amasya E. 34 E. B-l, HW21a. F-l 

Amaseia TP M 643 and f. 211 

Amasya Amasia G. 35 (2) 

40°39' X 35°51' U. 324 D IV g 

Amid See Amida. H 

Amida Amid Diyarbakir E. 35 E. D-4 See Ch IX n. 42. § 

Amit' T.P. H.W. 41, 0-5, CM Of £ 

M 737-740, f. 238 <J 

Amit' See Amida. 

Analiba See Analibna. 

Analibla See Analibna. 

Analibna Analiba Daranalia T.P., LA. M 645, 679 and 680 f. See Ch. Ill nn. 16a-b. 

Analibla 223 

P. V, vi, 18 CM Md 


E. 33 

Anastasiopolis See Dara. 

Angl berd Agil Egil E. 35 (1) E. G-4 T. 75 n. 83, 109 n. 168, 131 

Karkathiokerta A A 106 137 n. 240, 167-168, 176-179, 

224, 297-303, 315. 

See Ch. XI n. 21; XIV 

n. 48. 


Angl in Caikotn Anglon E. 35 (2) E. G-5 T. 310, 315, 319. 

See Ch. XI nn. 21, 22. 

Anglon See Angl in Caikotn. 

Ani in Daranalik' Kemah E. 35 E. G-3 T. 109 n. 168, 454 n. 64. 

See Ch. Ill nn. 1, 3a. 
Ani in Sirak G. 37 U. 325 D IV T. 206, 207 n. 236. 

40°32' x 43°34> g 

Anosarvan kala See Akbas. 5 

Antioch of Mygdonia See Nisibia. |zj 

Anzit See Anzita. g 

Anzita Anzit Hisn Ziyad E 36 E. G-3 See Ch. II nn. lib, 19a-c, 20. ^ 

Hinzlt Castellum Ziata Q 

Tilenzit 3 

Aqba See Akbas. qq 

Arabesson See Artaleson. ' 

Arabissos Af§in ? T.P., LA. M 737-738, f. 237 O 

Yarpuz ad L., H.S., E. G-2 ^ 


e.38 ; 

Arabrake See Ch. IV p. 69. 

Arahez See Avaris. 

t- 1 

Arakli See Siirmene. 2 

Arane See Aranis. JJ1 

Arangas Argaus? T.P. M 682 and 681 f. 223 See Ch. IV n. 20. 

Aranis Arane Alacahan P. V, vi, 21 M 684 See Ch. IV n. 23. 

LA. CM Ld 

Arapkir G. 40(1) U. 341 B II So 

39°03' x 38°30' * 

ad Aras Izollu E. 31 E. G-3 

T.P. M. 738, fig. 238 


Arasaka ,See SJarkisla. 

Arauracos Araurica I.A., N.D. CM Md 

Araurica See Arauracos. 

Arbela E. 49 AA 104, HW 21a G-2 See Ch. IX n. 33. 

Areas Arka Arga LA. M 736 and f. 237 See Ch. IV n. 42a. 

Arkas ad L., H.S., G.C. CM Me 

Arcat'i Arzuti AA 106 See Arzuti. 

Ar6es Arcis E. 39 E. G-5 T. 205 n. 234. 

Arcis Ar<5es G. 41 U. 340 B IV 

Ercis 39°00' X 43°19' 

Arcn E.58 AA 106 See also Karin. 

Ardasa Torul G. 41 AA 106 

40°35' X 39°18* 
Areon See Ch. Ill n. 25. 

Arest Afestawan E. 37 E. G-5 See Ch. I nn. ll-12a. 


Afestawan See Afest. 

Arga Areas G. 42 (2) 

3S°21' X 37°59' 
Argaun Argaus Tahir? E. 39 E. G-2 See Ch. IV n. 20. 

Arangas ? 

Arguvas 1 

Argaus See Argaun. 

Arghana Maden G. 42 U. 340 A IV 

38°23' X 39^40' 

Arguvan See Arguvas. 

Arguvas Arguvan Arangas ? G. 42 U. 341 B III 

Argaun? 38°47' X 38°17' 
Ariarathe See Ariarathia. 





Ariaratheia See Ariarathia. 

Ariarathia Ariarathe Aziziye ? C.Th. XXX, xi, 2 HW 20a D-2 See Ch. IV n. 42a. 

Ariaratheia C.J. XI, 47, 1 CM Ke 

ad L., H.S., G.C. 

Arizan See Erez 

Arka • See Areas. 

Arkathiokerta See Karkathiokerta. g 

Arke See Areas. ^ 

Arna Aeliana? E. 37 E. G-6 3 

Arrestdn See Af est. g 

Arsamosata Asmusat Yarimea E.40 E. G-3 T. 75 n. 83, 210. ^ 

Samsat CM Ne See Ch. II nn. 17-19. g 

Samsey J^ 

Samusat § 

Samusi * 

Samusia q 

Simsat 3 

Artales See Artaleson. e» 

Artaleson Artales Endires ? See Ch. I pp, 19-20 and n. 36. ' 

Artasat Artaxata E. 41 E. G-6 £ 

Artaxata See Artasat. F 

Artvin G. 46 U. 324 C III O 

41°11' X 41°49' «» 

Arzuti Arcat'i? G. 46 U. 324 C III 

40°04' X 41°16' 
AsagiKirvaz Kowars? U. 340 A III See Ch. I n. 30. 

Kiravi ? 
Askale G. 55 (2) U. 340 A I £> 

39°55' X 40°42' ** 

Asmusat See Arsamosata. 

Asnak See Osakan. 

Astisat Yastisat E. 36 E. G-4 T. 209. 

fleeCh.IIn. 4;XId. 35. 



Astlberd Azakpert ? AA 104 See Ch. I n. 33a. 

Kitharizon ? 
Athenae At'ina E. 32 E. B-4, AA 106 See Ch. Ill n. 30. O 

Athenis T.P. M 648 and f. 212 

CM Ob 

Athenis See Athenae. 

At'ina See Athenae. 

Attachas AtVa* Hindis ? AA 106 See Ch. I nn. 7, 8a ; V n. 15a. 

Hattah? CM Oe 

At't'a# See Attachas. 

Auasa See Abaxa. 

Auaxa See Abaxa. 

Avares See Avaris. fe 

Avaris Avares Arahez? G. 58 U. 324 C III jjg 

40°51' x 41°45' g 

Awaz See Abaxa. {-J 

A^kan See Olakan. . 

Aza See Haza. 

Azaghberd See Azakpert. 

Azakpert Azaghberd Astlberd? G. 64 U. 340 A I See Ch. I n. 33b. 

Aznaberd? 39°14' X 40°30' 

Kitharizon ? 

Aziran See Erez. 

Aziris P. V, vi, 18 

Aziziye Pirnabasin G. 64 U. 341 B IV 

Ariarathia? 38°44' X 36°24' 

E. 39 

Aznaberd See Azakpert. 

Baberd Bayburt AA 106 

Bab-al-Abwab See Darband. 


be# Bagas See Ba§kale. 

Bagawan Bagauna E. 42 E. G-5 T. 309, 319-320. 

Surb Karapet See Ch. XI nn. 20, 27a. 

Bagarifi See BagayafiS. 

Bagayarie Bagaric Pekeric E. 42 E. G-4 See Ch. Ill n. 1. 

Baghin See Bagin. 

Bagin Baghin Palm G. 62 (2) U. 340 A I § 

Palios 39°00' X 39°55' g 

Baiberdon Bayburt See Ch. Ill n. 25. gj 

Baioulouos See Balu. g 

Balaleison See Bales. .. 

Bales Balales Balaleison E. 44 E. G-5 See Ch. IX n. 34. Q 

Bitlis AA 106 3 

Balu Baioulouos E. 43 E. G-3 See Ch. Ill n. 3. § 

Palu AA 106 

Banabeldn Benabelon See Bnabel. O 

Barchon See Ch. Ill n. 26c. % 

Bargiri See Berkri. U1 

Barissara See Berisse. . 

Barsalium See Barzalo. P 

Barzalo Barsalium T.P. E. D-3 £ 

E. 44 M 684 and f. 224 g 

CM Ne co 

Bas Soragyal See Sirakawan. 

Baskale Hadamakert G. 78 U. 340 B IV 

bed Bagas ? 38°02' X 44°00' AA 108 

Bassiiregel Bas Soragyal Sirakawan G. 80 U. 325 D IV 

40°42' X 43°44' 5 

Bayazet' See Dogubayazit. * 

Bayburt Baytberd Baiberdon G. 82 (2) U. 324 C IV 


Baberd 40°16' x 40015' AA 108 

E. 44 E. B-4 

Baytberd See Bayburt. 

Baz G. 84 TJ. 340 B IV 

38°00' X 44°07' 

Bazanis See Bizana. 

Bazmalbiwr Xeq AA. 105 See Ch. Ill n. 6 

Belhan See Belikan. 

Belikan Bilikan Belhan? G. 88(2) U. 340 A IV. 

Babikan Belkania ? 38°19' X 40°02' 

Belkania Belhan ? See Ch. Iln. lib. 

Benabelon See Bnabel. 

Benabil Bnabel G 89 

37019' X 40°51' See Ch. II nn. 5a, 6. 

Berdaa See Partaw. 

Berisse Barissara ad L., G.C. See Ch. IV n. 42a. 

Berkri Bargiri Muradiye G. 77 A A 106 

39W X 43°43' U. 340 B IV 

Berzend See Ch. IX n. 13. 

Bezabde Bzabde Jazirah ibn Omar E. D-5 

Bitlis Balaleison G. 98 U. 340 A III 

Bates 38°22' X 42°06' 

Bizana Bazanis Leontopolis I See Ch. Ill n. 26 ; VI nn. 28k, 

Vizana Vizan 29. 

Blandos Tutma9? LA. M 683 

Blur See Ch. XI n. 27a. 

Bnabel Banabelon Benabil E. 45 E. D-4 T. 137 n. 240, 168, 176-177. 

Boglan G. 100 

38°5S' X 41°03' 
Bol See Bolberd. 






Baberd 40°16' X 40 15' AA 108 

E. 44 E. B-4 

Baytberd See Bayburt. 

Baz G. 84 TJ. 340 B IV 

38°00' X 44°07' 

Bazanis See Bizana. 

Bazmalbiwr Xag AA. 105 See Ch. Ill n. 6 

Belhan See Belikan. 

Belikan Bilikan Belhan? G. 88(2) U. 340 A IV. 

Babikan Belkania ? 38°19' X 40°02> 

Belkania Belhan ? See Ch. Iln. lib. 

Benabelon See Bnabel. 

Benabil Bnabel G 89 

37°19' X 40°51' See Ch. II nn. 5a, 6. 

Berdaa See Partaw. 

Berisse Barissara ad L., G.C. See Ch. IV n. 42a. 

Berkri Bargiri Muradiye G. 77 A A 106 

39°00' x 43°43' U. 340 B IV 

Berzend See Ch. IX n. 13. 

Bezabde Bzabde Jazirah ibn Omar E. D-5 

Bitlis Balaleison G. 98 U. 340 A III 

Bales 38°22' X 42<W 

Bizana Bazanis Leontopolis I See Ch. Ill n. 26 ; VI nn. 28k, 

Vizana Vizan 29. 

Blandoa Tutinag? LA. M 683 

Blur See Ch. XI n. 27a. 

Bnabel Banabelon Benabil E. 45 E. D-4 T. 137 n. 240, 168, 176-177. 

Boglan G. 100 

38°58' X 41°03' 
Bol See Bolberd. 



Bolberd Bot Valarsakert? E. 45 E. B-4 See Ch. I nn. 39a, 40-43 ; 

Bolon Bugakale? AA 106 XI n. 3c. 


Borbaa See Porpes. 

Bourg See Bourgousnoes. 

Bourgousnoes Bourg See Ch. Ill n. 27. 

Brisa N. XXXI g 

Bmakapan Pirnakapan E. 46 (2) E. G-4 See Ch. Ill n. 12. g 

AA 106 *Z 

Bubalia T.P. M. 680, £ 223 See Ch. IV n. 17. § 

Bugakale Bolberd? G. 108 U. 324 C III ? 

40°12' X 41°4r g 

BuyiikTuy See Du. H 

Caene Parembole Kaine Parembole N.D. See Ch. V n. 19. § 

Caesarea of Cappadocia Eusebeia I. A., T.P. M 729 and f. 234 

Mazaka E. 58 HW41N-5 See Ch. IV n. 7. g 

Kayseri E. B-7 ^ 

CMJe § 

galdiran G. 122 (3) U. 340 B I 

39°09' X 43°52' £ 

Caleorsissa Kaltiorissa Golaris ? P. V, vi, 18 M. 679 and 680 f. 223 See Ch. IV n. 16b. £ 

Caltiorissa Olotoedariza ? T.P., I.A. CMMd Q 

Calik See Zagki. ui 

Calki See Zagki. 

Caltiorissa £ee Caleorsissa. 

Camisa Comassa Kemis ? T.P., I.A. M. 730 and 676 f. 222 

Haf ik, Kochhisar ? CM Ld 

Capakjur Capljur Kitharizon? G. 129 A A 106 £ 

38°50' x 40°12' % 

Carape See Karape. 

Carcathiocerta See Karkathiokerta. 


Carsat See Garsagis. 

Casara See Kasara. 

Castellum Ziata See Anzita. 

Qemifgezek Cmakacak G. 141 

39°04' X 38°55' 

Cena See Kena. 

Cerasus See Kerasos. 

£erme Jermay G. 144 (5) AA 105 

39°37' X 40°37' 
germik Ciaca ? G. 144 (2) U. 341 B IV 

38°42' X 38 27' 

Charaba See Xaraba Barbas. 

Charax P. V, vi, 18 CM Dc 

Charsianon Charsianum Horsana ? CM Jd 


Charsianum See Charsianon. 

Charton See Hart. 

Chaszanenica Gizenica T.P. M. 681 and 641 f. 212 See Ch. V n. 17. 

Hadzana ? N.D. 

Larhan ? 

Chiaca See Ciaca. 

Chlomaron Klimar See Ch. I nn. 17, 18a. 

Chorsabia P. V, vi, 18 

Ciaca Chiaca Craca P. V, vi, 19-21 M. 682 and 680 f. 223 

Kiakis germik ? T.P., I.A. 

Kiakkas N.D. 

E. 59 E. G-3 

Cimin Cimin Tzumina G. 152 U. 340 A I 

Jimin Justinianopolis 39°43' X 39°44' 
Citharizon See Kitharizon. 




Claudia Glaudia T.P. M. 684 and f. 224 

Klaudias P. V, vi, 24 CM Me 

Klawdias E. 59 E. G-3 

Cmskacag See Qemi§gezek. 

Cocuso See Kukusos. 

Colemerik See Julamerk. 

Colonia See Koloneia. 

Comana See Komana. 

Comassa See Camisa. 

Come Korne T.P. M. 684 and 683 f. 224 

CM Me 

Coucarizon See Kukarizon. 

Covk' E. 56-57 E. G-3 


Craca See Ciaca. 

Ctesiphon Tizbon HW 41 0-6 See Ch. XIII n. 25. 

Cunissa T.P., LA. M. 676 and 645 f. 212 See Ch. IV n. 16a. 

Dadima See Dadimon. 

Dadimon Dadima CM Ne See Ch. IX n. 42. 

Dagalasso Megalasso ? LA. CM Md See Ch. IV n. 16. 

Dagona Doganis P. V, vi, 18 

T.P. M. 730 and 676 f. 222 

B. 48 E. G-2 

Dalana P. V, vi, 18 

Dandaxena Dandaxina LA. M. 736 and f. 237 

E. 48 E. G-2 

Dara Kara Dara Anastasiopolis G. 168 U. 340 D II See Ch. I n. 3. 

37°10' X 40°58' HW 43 0-5 

Darband Derbend Bab-al-Abwab E. 49 E. A-8 










Darende Taranta G. 169 U. 341 B III See also Osdara. o 

38°34' X 37°30' * 

Darewnic Berd See Dariwnk'. 

Darioza Derreigazan ? See Ch. I n. 38a. 

Dariwnk* Daroynk* Dogubayazit E. 49 E. G-6 T. 202, 321-323, 322 n. 77, 

Darewnic Berd AA 106 342-343, 344 n. 16. 

See Ch. XI n. 19a, 24-25. 

Daroynk' See Dariwnk'. 

Dascusa Daskusa P. V, vi, 18 CM Me See Ch. IV n. 19a. 

Daseusa T.P., LA. M. 682 and 680 f. 223 


E. 48 E. G-3 > 

Daseusa See Dascusa. $ 

Daskusa See Dascusa. § 

Dasteira Doetal E. 48 E. G-3 See Ch. Ill n. 15a. g 

Deh Naxiragan See Deh Xargan. ^ 

Deh-Xarakan See Deh Jfargan. ^ 

Deh-Xargan Deh^arakan Deh Naxiragan A A 106 

Deir See Der. 

Deliktas Euspoena G. 175 U. 341 B-l 

39°21' X 37°13' 
Der Deir §ikefti G. 178 

38°09' X 44°12' 
Derik G. 183 (1) U. 340 D I 

37°22' X 40°17' 
Divrigi Tephrike G. 190 U. 341 B II See Ch. IV n. 19. 

Teucila ? 39°23' X 38°07' 

Diyadin Tateonk' G. 190 (3) U. 340 B I 

39°33' X 43°40 5 AA 108 


Diyarbakir Diyarbekir Amida G. 190 U. 340 D I See Ch. I n. 8. 

37°55' X 40°14' 

Diyarbekir See Diyarbakir. 

Diza See Gever. 

Djanik Samsun G. 191 U. 324 D I 

41°17' X 36°20' 
Djelu Qal? Unidentifiable. g 

Doganis See Dagona. I "d 

Dogubayazit Bayazet' Dariwnk' G. 82 U. 340 B-I % 

39°32' x 44°08' gj 

Domana P. V, vi, 18 CM Oc K 

T.P., LA. M. 682 and 646 f. 212 O 

N.D. H 

Dostal Dasteira G. 195 U. 341 B II § 

39°28' X 38°30' 
Doubios ... .See Dwin. 


Dracones Draconis Melikserif? T.P., LA. M. 676 and 645 f. 212 See Ch. IV nn. 16a, 17. ij 

Dracontes ChapulKopru? E. 49 E. B-3 H 


Draconis See Dracones. m 

f 1 
Dracontes See Dracones. jrj 

Du Tuy BiiyiikTuy G.432(Kuciik) U. 340 A II See Ch. I nn. 38c, 39. O 

Kucuk Tuy 40°00' x 41°26' (Btiyiik) w 

Dwin Doubios E. 49 E. G-6 See Ch. I n. 18. 


Egil Agil Angl Berd G. 202 U. 340 A IV 

38°15' X 40°05' 

Egen See Egin. 

Egin Ekin Akn G. 202 U. 341 B III 

Egen 39°16' X 38°29* 

Eken See Egin. 


t— ' 


Elanc Einut Ogirnt See Ch. I nn. 29, 30. <# 

Elbistaii Plasta G. 205(1) U. 341 B IV 

38°13' X 37°12' 

Elegaf i6 See Elegarsina. 

Elegarsina ElegariS Kamish dere T.P. M. 682 

E. 50 E. G-3 

Elind Erind T.A. 1/d 

Elki Alki G.206 U. 340 CI 

37°24' x 43°10' 

Elnut See Ognut. i-d 

Enderis Endires Susehri G. 210 U. 324 D III See Ch. I n. 36. § 

Endiryas Artaleson ? 40°11' X 38°06' g 

Henderis ^ 

Endires See Enderis. ^ 

Endiryas See Enderis. 

Erand See Rhandeia. 

Era^ani See Erkinis. 

Er$is See Arcis. 

Erez Eriza Erzincan E. 50 E. G-3 See Ch. I nn. 28, 28a, 32, 32a. 

Erezawan Arizan ? AA 106 

Erznka Aziran ? 

Erezawan See Erez. 

Erind See Elind. 

Eriza See Erez. 

Erkinis Era^ani G. 213 

Ir x an 40033* X 41°43' 
Erumya See Urumya. 


Erzincan Erez G. 214 U. 340 A I 

39°44' x 39°29' 

Erznka See Erez. 

Erzurum Theodosiopolis G. 214 U. 340 A II 

Karin 39°55' X 41°17' 

Eski Mosul See Nineveh . 

Euchaifca CM Ic See Ch. VII n. 18. § 

Eudoixata P. V, vi, 18 § 

Eumeis I.A. M 675 ^ 

Eusebeia See Caesarea of Cappadocia. ^ 

Euspoena Delikta§ I.A. M 683 „ 


Fata^ See Phathachon. S 

Fidi Pydna G. 225 U. 324 D IV § 

40°43* X 36°27' 
Fis Afisios Pheison G. 226 U. 340 A IV See Ch. I n. 21. O 

Affis 38°20' X 40°34' 


Fittar See Phitar. M 

Fum Pum Afumon? See Ch. I n. 17a. L 

Galtafic See JTaldoy afi£. p 

Ganjak Ganzaca Shiz E.46 E. D-4 See Ch. In. l;IXnn. 27, 28. £ 

Ganzaka Takht i Suleiman HW41P-5 § 

Ganjak Sahastan Ul 

Ganjak Sahastan See Ganjak. 

Ganzaca See Ganjak. 

Garissa See Garsi. 

Garni in Daranalik' Kami E. 46 (3) E. G-3 

Garni in Kotayk' E. 46(2) E. G-5 <g 

AA106 * 

Garsagis *Garsanis Carsat I. A, M 675 




♦Garsanis See Garsagis. * 

Garsi Garissa Karissa E. 47 E. B-l 

T.P. M 678 and 675 f. 222 

Garzan See Zok. 

Garzanissa See Gercanis. 

Gawaf See Gever. 

Gazaca See Ganjak. 

Gegik Gelik Giwhk G. 232 

Geyik 40°11' x 40°44' U. 324 C IV 

Gelik See Gegik. 

Gercanis Gerdjanis Gersagis G. 234 

Kercanis Garzanissa 39°54' x 38°46' {ti 

Refahiye ? E. 58 E. G-3 H 

Germani Fosaatum Krom ? Aed. Ill, iv, 10 See Ch. Ill n. 25. y 

Gersagis See Gercanis. |>4 

Gever Gawaf Bagas ? AA 106 See Ch. IX nn. 33, 34. <J 

Bales gewer ? 

Girvaz See Guvars. 

Giwlik See Gegik. 

Gizenica See Chaszanenica. 

Glaudia See Claudia. 

Godasa Gundusa Gundiiz ? P. V, vi, 18 M. 675 

Goksun Kukusos G. 244 U. 341 B IV 

38°03' X 36°30' 
Golaris Goller koyii Caleorsissa ? U. 341 B II See Ch. IV n. 16f. 

Goller koyii See Golaris. 

Gomenek Komana Pontica G. 248 U. 324 D IV 

40^23' X 36°39' 


Gumiif arte Giimu§hane G. 255 U. 324 C II 

41°07' X 41056' 

Giimushane See Giimu§ane. 

Gundusa See Godasa. 

Gunduz Giidiiz Godasa? G. 252 

39°34' x 37°21* 

Gurpinar See Kangawar. 

Guvars Girvaz See Kowars. § 

Haciwn Haysun E. 62 E. G-6 3 

AA106 g 

Hackoy Xag G. 267 U. 340 A I See Ch. Ill n. 10. ? 

Bazmaibiwr 39°39' X 40°40' Q 

Hadamakert Adamakert Ba§kale E. 62 E. G-5 T. 199-200. 3 

AA 106 See Ch. XI n. 71. w 

Hadzana See Chaszanenica. * 

Haf ik See Kochisar. O 

Hahi Xa x ? G. 267 U. 340 A IV | 

38°54' X 39°32' °d 

Halan Halane Horonon See Ch. Ill n. 31b. , 

Halane See Halan. p 

Hamsen See Hemsin. ^ 

Hamurgan See Siirmene. S 

Han SeeB.&m. m 

Hani Han G. 274(1) U. 340 A IV 

38°24' X 40°24' 

Hapul kopru Chapul Kopru Dracones See Ch. IV n. 17. 

Haraba See Harabe. 

Harabekoy Haraba Mezraasi Porpes? G. 275 (1) U. 340 A III See Ch. I n. 33. O 

Jiwnakert? 38°57 > X 41°02' ^* 

Hare-berd See Xarberd. 

Haris T.P. M. 682 and 680 f. 223 


Harput Kharput .Xarberd G. 277 U. 340 A IV 

38°43' x 39°15' 
Hars T'uxars G. 277 U. 324 C III See Ch. I n. 44. 

40°39' X 41°37' 
Hart Khart Charton G. 277 (2) U. 324 CIV 

40°25' X 40°09' 

Harta-berd • See Xarberd. 

Hasan Badrik See Hasanbatrik. 

Hasanbatrik Hasan Badrik Pisonos G. 278 See Ch. IV n. 22. 

38°36' X 38°ir 
Hasan^elebi ad Praetorium G. 278 U. 341 B II 

38°58' X 37°54' 
Hasankale Valarsakert G. 279 U. 340 A II See also Bolberd. 

39°59' X 41°41' 
Hasara Chaszanenica ? G. 279 U. 324 C IV 

40°30' X 39°28' 
Hasras G. 280 U. 340 D II 

37°57' X 42°16' 

Hassis &?eHaza. 

Hattah See Attachas. 

Haysun See Haciwn. 

Haza Aza Hassis T.P., I.A. M. 676 and 654 f. 212 See Ch. IV n. 24. 

E. 31 E. B-3 


Hazm See Hazro. 

Hazro Hazru G. 284 U. 340 A III 

Hazm 38015' X 40°47' 

Hemgin Hamsen G. 285 U. 324 C IV 

41W X 40°53> 
Henderis See Enderis. 




Her Xer Xby E. 63 E. G-6 

Hindis See Attachas. 

Hinis Xnus G. 289(2) U. 340 A II 

39°22' x 41°44' 

Hinzit See Anzita. 

Hisn Ziyad See Xarberd. 

Hispa Saracik T.P. M. 682 and 680 f. 223 

E. 63 E. G-3 

Hogeac vank' See Ch. IX n. 23a . 

Hore berd Xore berd Xarberd E. 63 E. G-3 See Ch. II n. 15. 

Hoiomos vank' See Ch. XI n. 17. 

Horonon Halane See Ch. Ill nn. 26b, 31b. 

Horsana Chorzana Charsianon ? G. 294 (2) U. 341 B-I See Ch. IV nn. 27, 28. 

Orsa? 39°45' x 37°14' 

Hozat Xozan? G. 296 U. 340 A I 

39°07' X 39°14' 

Hula See Hulvenk. 

Hulvenk Hula vank' G. 296 U. 340 A IV See Ch. II nn. 10, 11, 16. 

38°42' x 39°09' 

Huniurgan See Siirmene. 

Hypsele See Ipsile. 

Ilige Lice G. 450 U. 340 A IV 

38°28' X 40°39' 

Ipsala See Ipsile. 

Ipsele See Ipsile. 

Ipsile Ipsala Hypsele G. 311 U. 324 D III See Ch. IV n. 26. 

Ipsele 40°14' x 37°33' CM Lc 

E. 54 E. B-2 
Ir^an See Erkinis. 











I§han Is x an G. 312 (2) U. 324 C III T. 455 n. 70. 

40°48' X 41°45' 
Ispa P. V, vi, 18 

Ispir G. 316 U. 324 C III 

40°29' X 41W 
%an I§han E. 54 E. B-4 

Iuliopolis E. 72 CM Ne See Ch. IV n. 9. 

T.P. M. 658 and f, 216 

Ivora See Ch. VII n. 18 

Iz oglu • See Izolu. 

Izolu Iz oglu adAras? G. 317 

38°28' X 38°41' 
Jazirah ibn 'Omar Jeziret ibn 'Omar Bezabde AA 105 

Jenzan See Zenjan. 

Jermay See Qerme. 

Jeziret ibn 'Omar See Jazirah ibn 'Omar. 

Jimin See Cimin. 

Jiwnakert Jiwnkert Porpes E. 62 E. G-4 

Harabe koy ? AA 106 

Jiwnkert See Jiwnakert. 

Julamerk Qolemerik G. 318 U. 340 C I See Ch. XI n. 55. 

37°34' x 43°45' AA 108 

Justinianopolis Cimin See Ch.VIp. 117 andn.31;VII n.21. 

Kagdarie Biiyiik Kagdari9 Xaldoy arid G. 322 U. 340 A II 

GattariS 39°58' X 40°47' 

Kagizman Qaghyzman Kalzwan G. 322 M. 325 D IV 

40°09' X 43 07' 

Kaine-Parembole See Caene Parembole. 

Kainepolis See Valarsapat. 

Kalajik See Kalecik. 





Kalecik Kalejcik G. 326 (16) TL 324 C IV 

Kalajik 40°27' X 39°18' 

Kalejcik See Kalecik. 

Kaltiorissa See Caleorsissa. 

Kalzewan See Kalzwan. 

Kalzwan Kalzewan Kagizman E. 57 AA 106 

Kamacha See Kama#. 

Kamakh See Kama^. q 

Kamax Kamacha Kemah A A 106 ^ 

Kamakh. % 

Kamis Kemis E. 57 E. G-2 See Ch. IV n. 15a. ? 

Kami§li dere See Elegarsina. Q 

Kamurjajor Vank' AA 106 3 

Kan Kjan G. 329 (3) U. 340 A II 1 

39°57' X 41°16' 

Kangeva See Kangowar. O 

Kangever . See Kangowar. 3 

Kangowar Kangeva Kangever E. 58 E. G-5 T. 198. oq 

Kanguar Giirpinar ? AA 106. ^ 

Kanguar See Kangowar. £3 

Kara Amida See Amida. f£ 

Kara Dara See Dara. S 

Karape Carape P. V, vi, 18 M 

Karin Karnoy k'alak' Theodosiopolis E. 58 E. G-4 T.193-194 n. 209. 

Erzurum AA 106 See Ch. VI n. 28h, 36. 

Karissa See Garsi. 

Karkathiokerta Arkathiocerta Martyropolis ? E. 35 CM Ne T. 75 n. 83, 131, 137 n. 240, 

Carcathiocerta Angl berd 297 n. 80. O 

See Ch. II n. 5. ** 

Kami Garni in Daranalik' G. 362 U. 340 A I 

39°40' X 39°14' 


Kamoy k'alak' See Karin. O 

Kars Karucberd G. 362 U. 325 D IV ** 

40°37' x 43°05' AA 106 

E. 58 E. B-5 

Karuc berd See Kars. 

Kasara Casara P. V, vi, 18 

Kase Konsa? E. 58 E. G-l See Ch. Ill n. 6. 

Kayseri Caesarea of G. 373 U. 341 B IV 

Cappadocia 38°43' X 35°30' 


Mazaka ^ 

Keban-Maden G. 375 U. 341 Bill ^ 

38°48' X 38°45* jg 

Keli Koloberd Kigi AA 106 § 

Kemah Kama x Ani in Daranalik' G. 378 (3) IT. 340 A I P 

39°36' x 39°02' < 

Kemaliye See Egin. 

Kemis See Kamis. 

Kena Cena See Ch. Ill pp. 49,52 and n. 27. 


Keomana See Komana. 

Keramon See Krom. 

Kerasos Cerasus Pharnakia N. XXXI HW 15c C-l 

Kerasunta CM Mc 

Kerasunta See Kerasos. 

KerSanis See Gercanis. 

Kharput See Harput. 

Khart See Hart. 

Khiaghid aridj See Zaldoy ari6. 

Kiakis See Ciaca. 


Kiakkas See Ciaca. 

Kigi-Kasaba Keli G. 386 U. 340 A I 

Koloberd 39°20' X 40°30' 

Kinkivar See Kowars. 

Kiravi Kirvel G. 391 U. 340 A III See Ch. I n. 30. 

38°54' X 41°32' 

Kirvel See Kiravi. H 

K*is See Ku§. £3 

Kit'arid Qitriz Koderic E. 59 E. G~5 See Ch. I n. 38. £ 

Kitharizon ? AA 104 g 

Sheikh SelimKala? *< 

Kitharizon Citharizon Kit'aric ? CM Ne See Ch. I nn. 27,33b-37. 

Koderic ? H 

Sheikh SelimKala? j§ 

Kjan See Kan. 

Klaudias See Claudia. 

Klawdias See Claudia. ^ 

K'limar Kutemran Chlomaron E. 89 See Ch. I n. 18a cc 

Kochisar §ereflikochisar Hafik G. 411 (7) U. 341 B II 

Camisa ? 39°52' X 37°24' p 

Koderic Kitharizon? G. 411 U. 340 A IV See Ch. I nn. 27, 33b. £ 

38°54' X 39°45' O 

Kokaris Kokiris Kukarizon? See Ch. VI n. 33. oq 


Kot See Koloberd. 

Kolb Kulp E. 59 E. B-5 

Koloberd Kot Keli E. 60 E. G-4 See Ch. I n. 26. 

Kigi-Kasaba O 

Kolona See Koloneia. * 

Koloneia Colonia §ebinkarahissar ad L., CM Mc See Ch. Ill nn. 26, 30b. 

Kolona Koyulhisar? H.S., G.C. E. B-2 

Koloniay E. 60 



Koloniay See Koloneia. §o 

Komana Aurea Comana §ar LA., T.P. HW 21a, F-2 See Ch. IV n. 7. * 

Golden Comana ad L. M. 735-736 and f. 237 

H.S., G.C. CM Ke 

Komana Pontica Comana Gomenek T.P. M. 674 and 676 f. 222 See Ch. IV n. 42a. 

Komanta HW 21a F-l 


Komanta See Komana Pontica. 

Kon§a Kase? G. 415 U. 340 A IV 

38°32' x 40°38' 

Korne See Corne. 

Koropassos See Zoropassos. > 

Kot'er Kotiir See Ch. Ill n. 6. h§ 

Kotiir Khotour Kot'er G. 424 U. 340 A I See Ch. Ill n. 7. § 

39°43' X 40°18' g 

Kowark' See Kowars. ^ 

Kowars Kowark' Kiravi? E. 61 See Ch. I n. 30. ^ 

Guvars ? Asagi Kirvaz 

Girvaz ? Girvaz komlari ? 

Koyulhisar Koloneia? G. 425 U. 324 D IV 

40°18' X 37 51' 

KrSunik' See Kurcivik. 

Krom Kroman Keramon G. 428 See Ch. VI n. 35. 

Kiiruman Germani Fossatum ? 38°52' X 40°20' 

KiiciikTuy See Du. 

Kukarizon Kokaris ? Aed. Ill, iv, 12 

Kukusos Cucusus Goksun LA. M. 736 and 735 f. 237 See Ch. IV n. 42a. 

Cocuso ad L., H.S., G.C. CM Ke 

Kulp Kotb Tuzluca G. 434 

40°03' X 43°39' 


Kurcivik KrSunik' ? G. 437 U. 340 B IV 

38°34' x 44°07' 
Kurnuc MknarinS? G. 439 U. 324 C III 

40°03' X 41°37' 
Kurucan G. 442 U. 340 B IV See Ch. XI n. 62. 

38°37' X 44°16' 

Kiiruman See Krom. q 

Ku§ Kis Kasimi? G. 443 U. 340 D I ? § 

37044' x 4 04i» £ 

Kutemran See Klimar. g 

Larhan Chaszanenica G. 449 U. 324 C IV ? 

40°44' X 39°37> Q 

Leontopolis See Bizana and Zalichos. 3 

Leri Lerri Lerion U. 324 C IV See Ch. VI n. 35. § 


Lerion See Leri. O 

Lerri See Leri. § 

Lice See Ilige. ^ 

Lim Limb Lumb E. 54 E. G-5 See Ch. XI n. 60. ^ 

Limb See Lim. P 

Longini FossatLm See Ch. Ill n. 27. ^ 

Lumb See Lim. § 

Lysiormon Aed. Ill, iv, 10 See Ch. Ill n. 25. ^ 
Lytararizon Lusat'ariS ? Olotoedariza ? Aed. Ill, iv, 10 See Ch. Ill n. 25 ; VI n. 34. 

Mada'in See Ctesiphon. 

Maden . See Arghana Maden. 

Maipherkat See Miyafarkin. 

Maku Sawarsan E. 64 E. G-6 T. 197. © 

AA 106 * 
Malatya Melitene G. 455 (1) U. 341 B III 

38°21' X 38°19' 


Malazgirt Masgirt Manazkert G. 455 U. 340 B I See Ch. XI n. 45. O 

Mazgert 39°09' X 42°31' 

Mamahatun G. 456 U. 340 A I 

39°47' X 40°24' 

Manawazkert See Manazkert. 

Manazkert Manawazkert Malazgirt E. 65 E. G-5 T. 218. 

Manzikert AA 106 See Ch. XI nn. 45, 51. 

Manzikert See Manazkert. 

Maragay See Ch. Ill n. 1. 

Maragha AA 105 

Mafakan Marakert Marakend E. 65 E. G-6 See Ch. XI n. 61. > 

AA 106 S 

Marakert See Marakan. ^ 

Marand E. 65 E. G-6 S 

AA 106 * 

Mardara P. V, vi, 18. < 

Marde berd See Mardin. 

Mardin Marde berd G. 459(1) U. 340 D I 

37°18' X 40°44' 
E. 65 E. B-4 

Masgirt See Malazgirt. 

Martyropolis Tigranakert Aed. Ill, ii, 2-3 HW 43 0-5 T. 137-138 n. 240, 174. 

Miyafarkin Pers. I, viii, 22 CM Oe See Ch. I nn. 4-6. 

Np'rkert xxi, 6 

Mastara AA 109 

Mazaka See Caesarea of Cappadocia. 

Mazara Mezre ? See Ch. II nn. lib, 12a, 13. 

Mcbin Nisibis E. 71 E. D-4 

Nusaybin AA 108 


Megalossos Dagalasso ? T.P. M. 730 and f. 234 See Ch. IV n. 16. 


See Megalasso, 

Meletensis See Melitene. 

Melikan Artaleson G. 464 (2) U. 340 A I 

39°28' X 40°21' 
Melik§erif Melikserik ? Dracones ? G. 464 U. 341 B II See M. 682. 

39°56' X 38°56' 
Melita Metita P. V, vi, 24 

Meteita T.P., N.D. M. 684 and f. 224 

E. 70 E. G-3 

CM Me 
Melitene Meletensis Malatya T.P., LA. M. 683 and f. 224 See Ch. IV n. 11 

Melitine N.D. HW 41 N-5 

E. 66 E. G-6 

CM Me 

Melitine See Melitene. 

Melomeran See Mollaomer. 

Mesorome T.P. 7 M. 731 and 675 f. 222 

E. 70 E. B-2 

Metita See Melita. 

Miyafarkin Maipherkat Martyropolis G. 475 V. 340 A III See Ch. I nn. 9, 10. 

Muharkin Tigranakert 38°08' X 41°01' 

Mufarhn Np'rkert 


Mknarinc See Kurnuc. 

Moehora Mohola ? N.D. See Ch. V n. 16a. 

Mucura G. 475 U. 324 C IV 
40°54' X 39°27' 
Mohola See Moehora. 












Mollaomer Molla Omer Mormrean G. 476 (2) U. 340 II £2 

Mulla Omer 39°27' x 40°45' * 


Mormran See Mormrean. 

Mormrean Mormran Mollaomer See Ch. I n. 25. 


Morran See Mormrean. 

Mren E. 71 E. Bo T. 214 . 

AA 106 See Ch. XI n. 18. 

Mucura See Mochora. 

Mufarhn See Miyafarkin. 

Muharkin See Miyafarkin. 

Mulla Omer See Mollaomer. *ti 

Muradiye See Berkri. H 

Nagan See Nkan. y 

Na^Sawan See Na^ijewan. fxj 

Na^ijewan Na#6awan Naxuana P. V, vii, 5 A A 106 <j 

E. 72 E. B-5 

Naxuana See Na^ijewan. 

Neferkert See Np'rkert. 

NeoCaesarea Niksar T.P. M. 644 f. 211 

Nerjiki See Ch. I n. 18a. 

Nicopolis See Mkopolis. 

Nikopolis Nicopolis Piirk P. V, vi, 18 HW41N-4 See Ch. Ill n. 25; IV nn. 14, 

T.P., LA. M. 675 and f. 222 16a, 42a. 

ad L., H.S., G.C. CM Mc 

E. 72 (2) E. B-3 

Niksar NeoCaesarea G. 488 U. 324 D IV 

40°36' x 36°58' 



Ninah See Tortum. 

Nineveh Ninwe Eski Mosul E. 72 E. D-5 

HW 10b C-l 

Ninwe See Nineveh. 

Nisibis Antioch of Mygdonia T.P. HW 41 0-5 

Mcbin M 770-771 and 741 f. 241 

Nusaybin CM Pf O 

Nisus See Nyssa. O 

Nize Nyssa? G. 489 U. 341 B IV kJ 

38°46' X 35°41' § 

Nkan Nagan AA 106 See Ch. XI n. 60. 

Np'rkert Np'fet Martyropolis E. 73 E. G-4 8 

Neferkert Tigranakert A A 106 £j 

Miyafarkin w 

Np'ret See Np'rkert. ^ 

Nusaybin Nisibis G. 490(4) U. 340 D II 2 

Mcbin 37°03' X 41°13' % 

Nysa See Nyssa. 

Nyssa Nisus Nize ? LA. M 661 and f. 217 See Ch. IV n. 10a. < 

Nysa CM He £ 

Ognut Elnut Elanc G. 492 U. 340 A II > 

Olnut 39°08' X 40°53' fed 



Okbas See Akbas. 

*0kena See Kena. 

Okhda See Otha. to 

Oiakan Olkan Olane E. 74 E. G-4 T. 209. 5 

Akcan See Ch. I n. 30; XI nn. 32, 37, * 



Olane See Olakan. 

Oleoberda Uleoy berd T.P. M. 679 and 680 f. 223 

E. 73 E. G-6 

Olin See Ognut. 

Olkan See Olakan. 

Ohm berd See Ognut. 

Olnut See Ognut. 

Olotoedariza Aladarariza ? I.A., N.D. M 675 and 645 f. 212 See Ch. V n. 15. 

Caleorsissa ? E. 32 E. B-3 

Lytararizon ? CM Mc 

Olti See Oltu. 

Oltu Olti G.493 U. 324 C III > 

40°33' x 41°59' AA 108 % 

Ordru See Ordu. j^ 

Ordu Ordru See Ortuzu. 2 

Orjnhal See Osnak. ^ 

Oromandos P. V, vi, 18 ^ 

E. 75 E. G-2 

Orsa Horsana P. V, vi, 20 See Ch. IV nn. 25,28b. 

Osdara ? 

Ortu See Ortuzu. 

Ortuzu Ortu Ordu? G. 500(1) See Ch. I n. 39. 

39°55> x 41033' 
Osakan Asnak T. 197. 

See Ch. XI nn. 9, 9a, 10, 16. 
Osdara Orsa ? LA. M. 736 and f. 237 See Ch. IV nn. 25,28d. 

E. 74 E. G-2 

Osnak Orjnhal G. 501 U. 324 C III 

40°40' X 41°24' 


Otha Okhda? G. 501 U. 324 C III See Ch. I n. 42. 

40°35' x 41°39' 
Palin Bagin G.C. See Ch. Ill mi. 2-3. 

Palios kastron E. 76 E. G-3 

Palios kastron See Palin. 

Palu Balu G. 505 U. 340 A IV 

Baioulouos 38°42' x 39°57' 

Partaw Berdaa E. 77 E. B-7 T. 476 n. 169, 484. 

P'aytakaran Phatakaranes See Ch. IX n. 13b. 

Pekeri9 Bagayafifi G. 509 U. 340 A I 

39°43' x 40°13' 
Peri G.510 U. 340 A IV 

38°51' X 39°42' 
Pertek Pistek ? W. 250 See Ch. II n. 19. 

Petra See Ch. I n. 46a ; III n. 30. 

Petrios See Ch. VI n. 32c. 

Pharnacia See Pharnakia. 

Pharnakia Pharnacia See Ch. IV n. 1. 

Phathachon Thatha* See Ch. I n. 21a. 

Pheison Phison Fis See Ch. I n. 20. 

Phison See Pheison. 

Phitar Phittur Fittar See Ch. II n. 6. 


Phittur See Phitar. 

Phtr See Phitar. 

Phuphagena P. V, vi, 18 

Phuphena P. V, vi, 20 See Ch. IV n. 23. 






tr 1 




Piriz P'rris G. 514 U. 340 A I 

39°50> X 40 08' 

Pimabagin See Aziziye. 

Pirnakaban See Pirnakapan. 

Pimakapan Pirnakaban Brnakapan G. 514 U. 340 A I 

Pirsnakapan 39°58' x 40°34' 

Pirsnakapan See Pirnakapan. 

Piaingara P. V, vi, 18. 

Pisonos Hasanbatrik LA. M. 684 

Pistek See Pertek. 

Pitar tfeePhitar. 

Pithia Thia Pitiunt? LA., N.D. M. 681 See Ch. V n. 19. 

Pitiunt Pithia? E. 77 E. A-4 

Pkoiir See Piirk. 

Plasta Elbistan E. 78 

Polemonion T.P. M. 647 and 643 f. 211 See Ch. IV n. 42a ; VII n. 18. 

CM Lb 
Porpes Borbas .Xaraba-Barbas See Ch. I n. 33. 


Harabe koy ? 
ad Praetorium Praetorio Hasangelebi LA., T.P. E. G-2 See Ch. V n. 10. 

E. 31 M. 684 

P'rris Piriz See Ch. Ill n. 8. 

Ptandari Tanadaris P. V, vi, 22 CM Ke 

Tanir? LA. M. 736 

E. 78 E. G-2 

Pum See Fum. 

Piirk Piirko Nikopolis G. 518 U. 324 D III 

40°08' x 38°09' 

Pydna See Fidi. 

Qaghyzman See Kagizman. 












Qitriz See Kit'ariS. 

Refahiye See Gercanis. 

Rhandea See Rhandeia. 

Rhandeia Rhandea Erand See Ch. II n. 18b. 

Rhizaion Rizon Rize E. 79 E. B-4 See Ch. Ill nn. 28a, 30. 

Rhizus AA 106 

CM Ob 

Rhizus. See Rhizaion. 

Rize Rhizaion G. 522 U. 324 C I 

41002' X 40°3r 

Rint tfe^Elind. 

Rizon See Rhizaion. 

Rumluk See Leri. 

Saba See Sabus. 

Sabus Saba §epik LA., T.P. M. 682 and 680 f. 223 

Sabbu N.D. CM Md 

E. 79 E. G-3 

Sadak Satala G. 524 U. 324 CIV 

Satal 40°03' X 39°36' 

Sahapiwan AA 104 

§ahverdiyan G. 527 

38°34' X 40°35' 
Salamas AA 106 

Salk'ora E. 79 E. B-5 


Salona See Siluana. 

Salonenica See Siluana. 

Samosata Sumaysat T.P., LA. M. 684 and f. 224 See Ch. II n. 17. 

HW 21a E-2 









I — i 




Samsat See Arsamosata. 

Samsun See Djanik. 

Samsey See Arsamosata. 

Samusat See Arsamosata. 

Samusi See Arsamosata. 

Samusia See Arsamosata. 

§ar KomanaAurea G. 534(2) TJ. 340 B IV 

38°20' x 36°19' 
Saracik Hispa G. 534(2) U. 341 B III 

38°52' x 38°40' 
§arkisla Arasaka ? G. 540 U. 341 B I 

Tonus 39°21' x 36°26' > 

Sarsapa Sarsapi See Uarsapa. <-Jj 

Sarsapion kastron See Uarsapa. <% 

Satal Satala E. 80 E. B-3 2 

Sadak * 

Satala S Ataleni Satal P. V, vi, 18 CM Nc See Ch. Ill nn. 25, IV n. 42a. < 

Sadak T.P., LA. M. 676 and 646 f. 212 

ad L., H.S., G.C. 

S Ataleni See Satala. 

Sawarsam See Maku. 

Schamalinichon Zimla See Ch. Ill nn. 26a, 27. 

Sebaste See Sebasteia. 

Sebasteia Sebaste Sivas LA., T.P. M. 730 and f. 234 See Ch. Ill n. 25; IV nn. 5, 

Sevastia ad L., H.S., G.C. CM Ld 42a. 

Sivastia E. 80 E. G-2 

Sebastopolis Sulusaray P. V, vi, 4 CM Kd See Ch. IV nn. 5, 42a ; V n. 19. 

N.D., LA. M. 674-675, f. 222 

ad L., H.S., G.C. 

E. 80 (2) E. G-2 


§ebinkarahisar Koloneia G. 544 U. 324 D III 

40°20' X 38025' 
Seleobereia P. V, vi, 18 

§epik §ipik Sabus G. 550 

39°06' X 38°32' 

Seresekia See §arki§la. 

Sevastia See Sebasteia. q 

Sewanaberd Seyvan kale AA 106 q 

Seyvankale Sewanaberd G. 557 (1) U. 340 B IV See Ch. XI n. 60. g 

38°33> X 43°40' & 

Sheikh Selim See Kitharizon. 

Kala Q 

§ikefti SeeVer. 3 

Siluana Salona T.P., N.D. M. 682 and 646 f. 212 See Ch. V n. 16. i 

Siile ? O 

Silvan See Miyafarkin. 2 

Simsat See Arsamosata. ^ 

Sinara See Sinera. ^ 

Sinekli See Sinikli. P 

Sinera Sinerva P. V, vi, 18 CM Md £ 

Sinara T.P. M. 680 f. 223 g 

Sinerva See Sinera. m 

Sinikli Sinekli Siniscolon? G. 562 U. 341 B III 

38°46' X 38°35' 

Siniscolon Sinikli ? P. V, vi, 21 

Sinna See Zintha. 

Sinope T.P. M. 644 and 642 f. 210 £ 

HW21aF-l * 




§ipik See §epik. 

Sirakawan Bas Soragyal E. 74 E. B-5 See Ch. XI n. 3. 

Ba§suregel AA 106 

giri Sirin girinan ? See Ch. Ill nn. 6, 9. 

girinan §irnan giri ? G. 564 U. 340 A I 

39«08' X 40°35' 

§irnan See §irinan. 

Sirni See Siri. 

Sisilia N.D. 

Sisilisson Ziziola ? See Ch. Ill nn. 27, 31c-d. 

Sismara P. V, vi, 18 

Sivas Sebasteia G. 565 U. 341 B-l 

39°45' x 37°02' 
Sivastia See Sebasteia. 

Spunios See Ch. IV n. 23. 

Suissa I.A. M. 675-676 

Siile Siluana? G. 574(2) U. 324 C IV 

40°25' X 39°44' 
Suluk G. 576 (2) U. 340 A III See Ch. XI n. 37. 

38°51' X 41°32' 

Sumaysat See Samosata. 

Sulusaray Sebastopolis G. 576 (2) 

38°42' x 34°44' 

Surb Karapet See Bagawan. 

Siirmene Susurmene Usiportus G. 578(1) U. 324 C IV 

Humurgan 40°55' X 40°07' 
Arakli ? 
Susarmia See Susurmene. 






Su§ehri See Endires. 

Susurmene Susarmia Siirmene See Ch. Ill n. 28a. 

Tablariensis N.D. 

Tabriz Tawriz AA 106 

Tahtakiran G. 581 U. 324 C III See Ch. XI n. 3b. 

40°53' X 42°36' 

Takht i Suleiman See Ganjak. 

Takhtuk See Tutmac. 

Tanadaris See Ptandari. 

Tank Tanadaris? G. 583 (2) U. 341 C I 

Ptandari ? 37°52' X 36°41' 

Tapura See Tephrike. 

Taranta Derende E. 85 E. G-2 

Tateonk' Diyadin E. 85 E. G-5 See Ch. XI n. 22. 

Tawriz See Tabriz. 

Tephrike Abrik Divrigi P. V, vi, 20 

Tevrik E.86 E. G-3 


Teucila ? 
Teucila Teucira Divrigi? LA. M. 682 

♦Teurica CM Md 

Teucira See Teucila. 

*Teurica See Teucila. 

Tevrik See Tephrike. 

Thathax See Phathachon. 

Theodosiopolis Karin HW43 0-5 See C. Ill n. 26; VI n. 28f. 

Erzurum CM Pd 

Thia SeePithia. 

Thilenzit ... See Tilenzit. 


h- 1 


fcr 1 














M. 746 and 738 f. 239 
HW 20a E-2 
CMOe? Of? 

See Ch. I n. 10. 





. See Tigranakert. 

Tigranokerta . 

. See Tigranakert. 



G. 598 (4) 
38°49' X 39°18' 

U. 340 A IV 

See Ch. Ill nn. 1, 5 




See Ch. II n. 11a. 

Timur agha 

See Ch. I n. 22b. 




E. 23 

AA 104. 




40°19' X 36°34' 






M. 730 






G. 602 (5) 
39°21' x 36°26 5 

U. 341 B I 



E. 53 

E. G-3 

See Ch. Ill n. 1; XII n. 48. 



G. 604(1) 
39°40' X 39W 

U. 340 A I 



G. 604 

40°19' X 41°35' 

U. 324 C III 





G. 605 

41°00' X 39°43' 

U. 324 C I 




T.P., I.A. 

M. 647-648, and 645 
f.212 CMNb 

See Ch. Ill nn. 28, 30. 


. See Trapezos. 


Trebizond Trapezos E. 86 E. B-7 

Trabzon AA 106 

Tutmac Tutmadj Takhtuk G. 609 See Ch. IV n. 22. 

Blandos 39°32' X 37°11' 

Tutmadj See Tutmac. 

T'u^ars See Hars. § 

Tuy See&u. g 

Tuzluca See Kulp. % 

Tzanzakon Zavzoka See Ch. Ill nn. 27, 32. g 

Tzumina Cimin E. 57 E. G-3 See Ch. Ill n. 26 ; VI n. 30. ? 

AA 106 o 

Ualentia N.D. tn 

Uarsapa Varsapa Arabissos ? P. V, vi, 18 #ee Ch. IV n. 28b. <# 

Varpasa Sarsapa ? 
Uleoy berd See Oleoberda. O 

Urumya khan Erumya See Ch. IV n. 18a. g 

Valarsakert Hasankale E. 81 E. G-5 See Ch. I n. 41. & 

AA 106 ' 

Valarsapat Kainepolis E. 82 E. B-6 See Ch. V nn. 10a,19. £ 

Vardanakert E. 83 E. G-7 £ 

Vardasen Vardisen AA 106 ^ 

Vardenik Vartinik A A 106 » 

Vardisen £ee Vardasen. 

Varissa See Verise. 

Varpasa See Uarsapa. 

Varsapa See Uarsapa. 

Vartinik Vardenik G. 621 U. 324 CIV fcg 

40°15' X 40°40' * 

Vereuso T.P. M. 682 and 680 f. 223 


. to 


Verise Varissa Berissa I.A. M. 674 and 675 f. 222 * 


Vican Vidjan Bizana W. 249 U. 340 A I 



Vidjan See Vican. 

Vizana See Vican. 

Vizan Bizana E. 83 E. G-4 

Vizana See Vican. 

Xa$ Hackoy See Ch. Ill nn. 6, 10. 

Bazmalbiwr ^ 

Zaldoy arifi Gattaric Kagdaric AA 105 See Ch. Ill n. 11. H 

Xalto af i6 y 

Kiaghid aridj ^ 

Xal x al SeeXi\ x il < 

Xaraba-Barbas Charaba Porpes E. 63 See Ch. I n. 33. 

Xarberd Hare bert Harput AA 106 

Hore berd Hisn Ziyad ? 

Hart Bert 
X&x Hahi ? See Ch. Ill n. 1. 

Xer See Her. 

Xi\ x il Xal x al See Ch. IX n. 21. 

Xnunik' See Xnus. 

Xnus Xnunik* AA 108 

Xoy Xer AA 108 









Hozat ? 

E. 55 

E. E-4 





G. 630 (6) 
38°39' X 39°46' 

U. 340 A IV 


Yasti§at .... 

Yarpus . 

. See Af§in. 

. See Astisat. 


Yssu limen 


N.D. P.V, vi, 5 

See Ch. V n. 18. 



G. 657 

40°12' X 41°29' 

U. 324 C III 

See Ch. I nn. 38c 39. 




G. 658 (4) 

39°55' X 37°46' 

U. 341 B II 

See Ch. VII n. 18. 

Zarehawan of Calkotn 

E. 52 (3) 

E. G-5 

T. 309, 310 n. 32. 
See Ch. XI n. 23. 




M. 679 and 675 f. 222 
HW 41 N-4 

Zen j an 

Jenzan ? 



M. 682 and 680 f. 223 

Zerran .... 

.See Gever. 





Hi§n Ziyad 



40°37' x 39°20' 

U. 324 C IV 

See Ch. Ill n. 33. 


P. V, vi, 18 
T.P.. LA. 


M. 679 and 680 f. 223 





t" 1 
















U. 341 B II 

39°29' X 


E. 52 


S chamalinichon 


U. 324 C IV 

40°46' X 


Sinna ? 


E. D-6 

Zindu ? 

Sisilisson ? 

T.P., LA. 

M. 676 and 6 


M. 675 


G. 664(1) 


U. 340 A III 

38002' X 




See Ch. IX nn. 29, 29a. 

See Ch. IV n. 10a. 



C. Mountains - Plains 

The following abbreviations were used in this section in addition to those previously given 









Abes. Mu>. 

Abus M. 
Agri dagi 
Ala dagi 


Ararat ? 


40°08' X 37°47' 

G. 26 (2) 
39°20' x 43°35' 

U. 324 D III 

U. 340 B I 

Coordinates given for town no 
mountains indicated by this 
name in Gazetteer. 
See Oh, Illn. 19a. 
.See Ararat. 

Alagoz . 
Aleluya P. 

Anti Taurus M. 
Aragac M. 
Ararat M. 

Araxenon pedion 
Argaeus M. 

"Fair Plain" 
Xarberd P. 
Olu ovasi 
Harput P. 



Agri dagi 
Nibarus ? 

Erciyas dagi 

. See Aragac. 
See Ch. II nn. 12, 16. 


E. G-2 
CM O-Pe 

E. 38 


G. 40 

U. 340 B II 


X 44°24 5 


E. 31 

E. G-6 

See also P'ok'r Masis. 

See Ch. XI n. 2, also 
Provinces: Arsarunik'. 




i— i 



Arnasdagi Amos G. 44 U. 340 CI 

37°59' X 42°58> gj 

E. 37 E. D-5 0° 

Amos See Arnas dagi. 

Aye Ptkunk' M. Gohanam E. 35 E. G-4 See Ch. I n. 34 ; VI n. 44. 

Palandoken M. 

Azat Masis M See Ararat. 

Bagirbaba dagi Bagirpasa dagi Pa^r M. G. 68 U. 340 A I 

39°30' x 40006* 

Bagirpasa dagi See Bagirbaba dagi. 

Bakireyn Tunnel See Ch. I n. 23. 

Bar^al See Parhar. 

Belhan M. See Ch. II n. 12a. j> 

Bingol daglari Srmanc M. G. 97 U. 340 A II g 

39°20' x 41°20' 3 

Bolhar See Parhar. h-j 

Brnakapan pass Pirnakapan E. 46 E. B-4 See also Cities: Prnakapan. 

CalkawetM. Dumlu dagi E. 36 E. B-4 

Calke See Ala dagi. 

gamlibel daglari G. 125 U. 341 B I 

39°57' X 36°31' 
Capotes M. CM Pc See Ch. Ill n. 12b. 

Cevtla M See Qotela Akcakara M. 

Chaldean P See Xaldoy jor. 

gimen dagi G. 152 U. 340 A I 

39°56' X 39°15' 

Cip*an See Sip*an. 

CiraneacM. KandilM. E. 56 E. B-4 

Clisurae See Kleisurai. 

Qotela Ak§akara dagi Cevtla G. 161 (15) U. 340 A III 

38°40' X 40052* 


Darkosh M. Kurtik M. ? See Ch. I n. 22a. 

Dava boyun M See Deveboynu daglari. 

Deveboynu daglari Dava boyun M. See Ch. I n. 38b. 

Dumanli dagi G. 197 (6) 

39°42' X 40°45' 
Diimlu dagi Calkawet M. G. 197 U. 324 C III 

40°12' X 41°15' 

Eras^ajor See Araxenon pedion. 

Erciyas dagi Argaeus G. 211 

38032' X 35028' 
"Fair Plain" Kalopedion See Aleluya P. 

Gargar P. E. 46 E. G-8 See Ch. XIV nn. 75-76. 

GarnijorM. GiresurM. E. 46 E. G-6 See Ch. XI n. 57. 

Gayla^azut M See Pa^r M. 

GiresurM See Garnijor M. 

Gohanam M. Kohanam M. Kara dagi See Ch. Ill n. 4 ; VI nn. 43-44. 

Goan Sepuh M. 


Maneay ayrk' ? 
Aye Ptkunk c 
Gure M. See Ch. XI p. 248. 

Ha9 dagi Xa6 M. G. 261 (2) 

39°32' x 40°28' 
Hacre§ daglari Khandosh M. G. 267 

38038' X 40°28' 

Halhal See Harhal M. 

Haloras See Oloray. 

Haluris See Oloray. 

Harhal dagi Xal x al M. G. 276 

Meledu* M. 39°27' X 40°56> 








Harput P See Aleluya P. 

Hart ovasi See Cities: Hart. 

Hawasor See Hayoc jor. 

Hayoc jor Hawasor E. 62 E. G-5 

Illyrisum pass Aed. Ill, iii, 4 

Izala M See Masios M. 

Joraynkoys . See Kleisurai. 

Kalopedion See Aleluya P. 

Kandil dagi Ciraneac M. G. 330 (3) 

40°11' X 41035' 
Kara dagi Gohanam M. G. 342 (28) U. 340 A I 

Sepuh M. 39°45' X 39°13' 

Maneay ayrk' ? 
Kara Tonus M. U. 341 B I 

Karasakal dagi Kazikli M. ? G. 355 

39°20' X 39°38' 
Karayazi ovasi Karayazi kazasi Towarcatap' G. 359 See Ch. XI n. 53. 

39°35' X 42°05' 

Karer M See Karir dagi. 

Karga bazar M See Kargapazari dagi. 

Kargapazari dagi Karga bazar M. G. 360 U. 324 C III 

40°07' X 41°35' 
Karir dagi KoherM. G. 361 U. 340 A I 

Karer M. 39°05' X 40°40' 
Kazikli M See Kiiciikgol dagi and Karasa- 
kal dagi. 

Keraunian Caucasus See Sant'ayin M. 

Kesis daglari G. 383 U. 340 A I 

39°50' X 39°45' 
Khalkhal M See Harhal dagi. 





i— i 



Khandosh M. See Hacre§ daglari, 

Kirklar tepesi Mazgirt M. G. 395 

39°03' X 39°37' 
Kleissrai Klesurk' Jorayn kays E. 59 E. G-4 See Ch. I nn. 20-23 ; IX n. 24. 

Clisurae Rahva pass See also Kop dagi. 

Klesurk* See Kleisurai. 

Kohanam See Gohanam M. 

Koher M See Karir dagi. q 

Kohi Nihorakan E. 59 E. D-6 See Ch. IX n. 34a. § 

Kolat daglari G. 413 U. 324 C IV g 

40°36' X 39°35' g 

Kop dagi G. 416 See also Kleisurai. 

40°01' X 40°28' g 

Kosedagi G. 421 (1) V. 324 Dili § 

40°06' X 37°58' J| 

Kuciikgol dagi Kazikli M. ? G. 430 fc 

39°19' X 39°44' § 

Kurtik M See Darkosh M. 

Lesser Ararat See P'ok'r Masis. 

Maneay ayrk' See Sepuh M. 



Masios Masius Izala M. E. 65 E. D-4 so 

Masis Azat Masis See Ararat. 

Masius See Masios. 

Mazgirt M See Kirklar M. 

Not to be confused with Manaz- 
Meledu x M. Harhal dagi E. 70 E. G-4 See Ch. I n. 34. to 

Misfina M. See Ch. II n. 19c. ¥ 

Movkan dast See Mulani dast. 

Mughan P See Mulani dast. 


Mulanidast Movkan dast Mughan P. E. 71 E. G-8 

Munzur sisilesi Muzur M. G. 479 U. 340 A I 

39°30' X 39°10' 

E. 71 E. G-3 

Musar dagi G. 481 

38°37' X 38°25' 

Muzur See Munzur M. 

Navsan pass Navarshan dere See Ch. I n. 33a. 

Nemrut dagi G. 487 U. 340 A III 

38°40' X 42°12' 
Ne x Masik' M. Sip'an M. E. 72 E. G-5 See Ch. XI n. 50. 

Siiphan dagi 

NibarusM See Ararat. 

Nimrud M See Nemrut dagi. 

Niphates M. Npatakan M. P. V, xii, 1 

NpatakanM. Npat Niphates M. E. 72-73 E. G-5 

Olor See Oloray . 

Oloray Olor Haloras See Ch. I n. 22. 


Olu ovasi See Aleluya P. 

Palandoken dagi Aye Ptkunk' M. G. 504 See Ch. In. 34. 

39°47' X 41°15' 

Parhal See Parhar M. 

ParharM. Parhal Paryadres M. E. 77 E. B-4 See Ch. I nn. 43a, 45. 


Parhar See Parhar. 

Paryadres M. Parhar M. CM L-Nc T. 445, 450-452. 

Pa^irM. Bagirbaba dagi E. 76 E. G-4 

Gayla^azut M. 



i— i 


P'ok'r Masis M. Lesser Ararat M. E. 89 E. G-6 

ftahva pass See Kleisurai. 

Salbiis dagi Sipilus M. G. 529 

Surb Luys M. 39°17' X 40°00' 

SalinM. SalnoyM. E. 79 E. G-4 

SalnoyM See Salin M. 

Sant'ayin M. Keraunian E. 73 

Caucasus M. H 

Saphchae pass Aed. Ill, iii, 4 hd 

Saricicek yaylasi U. 341 B II The coordinates given in G. 537 ^ 

do no fit the indicated location g 

between Arapkir and Divrigi. kJ 

SarurP. E. 73, 118 E. G-6 ^ 

SasunM. E. 79 E. G-4 O 

Sebouh See Sepuh. 53 

Sepuh M, Sebouh Kara dagi E. 80 E. G-3 j> 

Gohanam M. i^ 

Maneay ayrk' ? , 

gerefiye See Abes. hj 

Sinibel M. See Ch. IV n. 16f. > 

Sip'an M. Cip'an See Nex Masik\ % 

Sipikor dagi Surb Grigor M. G. 563 U. 340 A I °° 

39°52' x 39°35' 
Sipilus Salbiis dagi ? CM 

Surb Luys M. 

Solalar M See Aye Ptkunk\ 

Srmanc M. Bingol daglari E. 80 E. G-4 See Ch. I n. 34. 

Siibhan , See Siiphan dagi. co 

Siiphandagi Siibhan dagi Sip'an M. G. 577 U. 340 B IV * 

Ne x Masik' M. 38°54' x 42°48' 
Surb Grigor M See Sipikor dagi. 



Surb Luys M See Salbiis dagi. §2 

Surb Nsan M See Top dagi. 

Taurus M. Toros daglari CM Jf-Kc 

Tecer dagi G, 589 U. 341 B I 

39°27' X 37°11' 
Tendiirekdagi T'ondrak M. G. 593 U. 340 B I 

39°22' x 43°55' 
T'ondrak M. Tendiirekdagi E. 53 E, G-5 

Top dagi Surb Nsan M. See Ch. VI n. 42. 

Toros daglari Taurus G. 588 

37°00' x 33°00' 

X&§ M See Ha9 dagi. > 

Zaldoyjor Chaldean P. E. 55 E. B-4 hj 

Xal^al See Harbal dagi. ^ 

X&t dast See Xerakan dast. 

Xarberd P See Alehiya P. 

Xerakan dast Xar dast E. 63 E. G-6 

Zagros M. AA 104 

Zigana sirdaglari G. 661 HW-llc 

40°37' X 39°30' 

E. 52 E. B-3 

i— i 

D. Rivers - Lakes - Seas 
The following abbreviations were used in this section in addition to those previously given : 









AbrikR See Ch. IV n. 19. O 


Acampsis See Akampsis. 

Adzharis Tskali R. Cx enis Clali R. U. 324 C II g 

Adzho R. AA 6 

Bzang R. g 

Adzho R See Adzharis Tskali R. jS 

Akampsis Acampsis Boas R. E. 32 E. B-4 W 

Akamsis 5 orun nehri A A 104 

Voh R. CM Oc £ 

Akamsis See Akampsis. W 

Akcayi See Timut R. & 

Ak cayi II See Cowars rod. ' 

Akhurean R See A^uryan R. g 

Aksar deresi Pulat dere G. 22 U. 324 D III Coordinates given are for go 

40°05' X 38°12' locality. 

See also Piilk 9ayi. 

AlisR SeeHalysR. 

Angu R. Arapkir cayi See Ch. IV nn. 19a-20. 


Aracani R. Arsanias R. Euphrates R. E. 38 E. G-5 w 

Murat nehri AA 6 * 

Araks R See Araxes R. 

Arapkir cayi See Angu. 


Arasnehri Araxes R, G. 41 U. 324 D IV 

39°56' X 48°20* 
Araxes R. Araks R. Arasnehri E. 38-39, 50 E. G4-G7 

Egri R. AA 6, 105 

Eras* R. CM Pc 

Mure R. 
ArSisakL. ArSak Ercek golii E. 39-40 E. G-5 See Ch. XI n. 56. 


Arcisak R See Mehmedik R. 

Ardanuc R. G. 41 U. 324 C II The coordinates given are for 

41°05' X 42°05' the locality and district. 

Arethusa Aretissa See p. 460 n. 56. 

Arghana su See Maden suy u. 

Arpa cayi Axuryan R. G. 44 U. 325 D IV 

Rah R. 40°06' X 43044' 

Arsanas See Arsanias. 

Arsanias R. Arsanas Euphrates R. AA 107 

Aracani Murat nehri HW 10a D-2 

Askar deresi See Aksar deres . 

A^uryan R. Akhurean R. Arpa cayi E. 32 E. B-5 

Rah R. AA 107 

Kars R. 
Azat R. Garni cay E. 31 E. B-6 


Bala rud See Balan rot. 

Balan rot Bala rud E. 44 E. G-8 See Bolgara gay. 

Balas rot 

Balas rot See Balan rot. 

Batmansuyu Nymphios R. G. 81 U. 340 D II 

Kalirt* 37°45' X 41°00' 




i— t 

D. Rivers - Lakes - Seas 
The following abbreviations were used in this section in addition to those previously given : 










AbrikR SeeCh. IV n. 19. O 

Acampsis See Akampsis. 3 

Adzharis Tskali R. C*enis Clali R. U. 324 C II g 

Adzho R. AA 6 

Bzang R. g 

Adzho R See Adzharis Tskali R. j5 

Akampsis Acampsis Boas R. E. 32 E. B-4 W 
Akamsis Qoruh nehri A A 104 

Voh R. CM Oc £ 

Akamsis See Akampsis. W 

Ak 9ayi See Timut R. cc 


Ak cayi II See Cowars rod. 

Akhurean R See A^uryan R. g 

Aksar deresi Pulat dere G. 22 U. 324 D III Coordinates given are for m 

40°05' X 38°12' locality. 

See also Piilk 9ayi. 

AlisR SeeHalysR. 

Angu R. Arapkir cayi See Ch. IV nn. 19a-20. 


Aracani R. Arsanias R. Euphrates R. E. 38 E. C-5 w 

Murat nehri AA 6 * 

Araks R See Araxes R. 

Arapkir cayi See Angu. 


Arasnehri Araxes R. G. 41 U. 324 D IV 

39°56' X 48°20' 
Araxes R. Araks R. Aras nehri E. 38-39, 50 E. G4-G7 

Egri R. AA 6, 105 

Eras* R. CM Pc 

Mure R. 
Ar&isakL. Ar6ak Ercek golii E. 39-40 E. G-5 See Ch. XI n. 56. 


Arfiisak R See Mehmedik R. 

Ardanuc R. G. 41 U. 324 C II The coordinates given are for 

41°05' X 42°05' the locality and district. 

Arethusa Aretissa See p. 460 n. 56. 

Arghana su See Maden suyu. 

Arpa cayi A x uryan R. G. 44 U. 325 D IV 

Rah R. 40°06' X 43°44' 

Arsanas See Arsanias. 

Arsanias R. Arsanas Euphrates R. AA 107 

Aracani Murat nehri HW 10a D-2 

Askar deresi See Aksar deres . 

A^uryan R. Akhurean R. Arpa cayi E. 32 E. B-o 

Rah R. AA 107 

Kars R. 
Azat R. Garni gay E. 31 E. B-6 


Bala rud See Balan rot. 

Balan rot Bala rud E. 44 E. G-8 See Bolgara gay. 

Balas rot 

Balas rot See Balan f ot. 

Batmansuyu Nymphios R. G. 81 U. 340 J) II 

Kalirt' 37°45' X 41000' 


Bendimahi 9ayi G. 89 U. 340 B IV 

38°55' X 43°35' AA 7 

Berklinziilkarneynsuyu G. 90 U. 340 A IV 

38°31' X 40°29' 
Bingol su Harsanova suyu ? See Ch. 1 n. 32a. 

Boas See Akampsis. 

Bohtansu See Botan $ayi. 

Bolgara gay Balan rot E. 44 E. G-8 See Ch. IX n. 13. 

Botan 9ayi Bohtan su Kentrites R. G. 103 U. 340 D II 

Jerm R. 37°44' X 41048' 

Bol x aR. 01tu9ayi E. 45 E. B-4 

Bulam L See Ha9li Golii. 

Bzang R See Adzharis Tskali R. 

Bznunik' S See Van L. 

Calgar R. See Ch. II n. 19d. 

Qaltisuyu Kangal su G. 123 U. 341 B II See Ch. IV p. 68. 

39°23' X 38°24' 
Caspian S. Kaspic S. E. 58 E. A. 8 -G-8 

Hyrkanian S. 
gekerek irmagi Scylax R. G. 138 U. 324 D IV 

40°34' X 35°46' 

Centritis See Kentrites R. 

Qeyhan nehri Jaihun 9ayi Pyramus R. G. 145 U. 341 C IV 

36°45' X 35°45' 
goruh nehri Akampsis R. G. 160 U. 324 C III 

Boas R. 41°36' x 41°35' AA 6 

Covk' L. Golcuk golii E. 57 E. G-3 





I— I 





Cowarsrod Ak cayi II E. 64 E. G-6 See Ch. XI n. 61. 

AA 105 See also Karmir R. 

C^enis clali See Adzharis Tskali. 

Cyrus R. Kura HW 29a P-4 

Degirmen deresi Pyxites R. G. 173 (6) U. 324 C IV 

41°00' x 39°46' 

Dicle nehri See Tigris R. 

DklatR See Tigris R. 

Egri R See Araxes R. 

Elmali deresi G, 207 See Ch. XI n. 53. 

39°25' X 40°35' 

Ep'rat R .See Euphrates R. 

Eras^ R See Araxes R. 

Ercekgolii ArSisak L. G. 211 I). 340 B IV 

38°39' X 43°22' 
Euphrates R. Ep'rat R. Arsanias R. E. 51 E. B-4 

Kara su cayi AA 6 

Murat nehri 
Firat nehri 
Firat nehri Euphrates R. G. 226 U. 341 B III 

31°00' X 47°25' 
GargarR. Karkar R. E. 46 E. G-7 

Garni gay Azat R. AA 105 

GaylR. Lykos R. E. 46(2) E. B-2 See Ch. Ill nn. 5, 24a. 

Kelkit cayi AA 106 

Gelakuneac S See Sevan L. 

Gercanis R. G. 234 The coordinates given are for 

39°54> x 38044' the locality. 

Gernaoksuyu Gernevik G. 236 U. 340 B I 

39°37' x 44°07' 






Gernevik See Gernaoksuyu. 

Geuljik L See Golcuk L. 

GinekR. Goniksuyu E. 47 E. G-4 

Gdksunehri Sarus R. G.244(5) XL 341 D III 

36°20' X 34^05' 
Golcuk L. Geuljik Hazar golu G. 246 U. 340 A IV 

Goljik Covk' L. 38030' X 39025' 

Goljik See Golcuk L. 

Goneksuyu See Goniksuyu. 

Goniksuyu Goneksuyu GinekR. G. 249 U. 340 A II See Ch. I n. 27. 

Gunig su 39°00' X 40°41' 

Gortuk See Angu R. 

Great Zab See Zab R. 

Gumiisane deresi Harmut su G. 255 U. 324 C IV 

40°30' X 39°23' 

Gunig su See Goniksuyu. 

Hacli golu Bulam L. G. 267 U. 340 A II-III 

39°00' X 42°18' 
HalysR. Alis R. Kizil Irmak E. 32, 63 E. B1-G2 See Ch. Ill n. 20. 

CM Kd Hd Jd 
Harabe deresi Harbe Menaskut R. ? G. 275 U. 340 A III 

38W x 40°56' 

Harmut su See Giimu§ane deresi. 

Harsit deresi Harsut R. G. 277 

Kharsut 41°01' X 38°52' 

Hasanova suyu Bingol su ? G. 280 U. 340 A II 

39°11' x 41°06' 

Hayoc jor su See Xosab R. 

Hazar golu See Golcuk. 


Hosap Xosab R. G. 295 U. 340 B IV Coordinates given are for the 

38°20' X 43°46' locality. jg 

Hrazdan R. Hurazdan R. Zanga R. E. 63 E. B-6 <=> 


Hurazdan R See Hrazdan R. 

Hyrkanian S See Caspian S. 

Imerhavcayi Imerhevi Meruli G. 306 U. 324 C II 

41°17' x 42°13' 
E. 73 E. B-5 

Iris R. Yesil irmagi E. 54 E. B-5 


Jaihun cayi See Ceyhan nehri. 

Jegam R. Zegam See Azerbaijan Atlas 21 and Ch. 

JermR. Kentrites E. 78 E. E-7 IXn.21. > 

Botan cayi ^ 

Kala-0R See K'alirt' R. izj 

K'alirt' R. Kala-0 Nymphios R. E. 89 E. D4-G-4 See Ch. I nn. 13, 14, 19. S 

Sit'it'ma R. 

_ < 


Kangal su See Qaltisuyu. 

Kapudan S. Kapautan S See Urmiah L. 

Karasu Marmet R. G. 356 (1) U. 340 B IV 

38°32' x 43°10' AA 6 

Kara su cayi Euphrates R. G. 356 (3) U. 340 A I 

Melas R. 

Firhat nehri 39°42' X 39°32' AA 6 

Karasuyu Mel R. G. 356 (20) U. 340 A III 

38°49' x 41°28' 

Karabudak cayi G. 337 U. 341 B II 

39°28' X 38°32' 

Karaderesu G. 343(12) U. 324 C IV 

40°57' X 40°04' 


Karkar R See Gargar R. 

Karmalas R. Zamantisuyu ? See Ch. IV n. 7. 

Karmir R. Kotur R. E. 58 G-6 See also Cowars rod. 

Kotoroy R. 

Kizil gay 
K'asal R. AA 7 

Keli See Miws Gayl. 

Kelkitgayi Lykos R. G. 378 U. 324 D III O 

Gayl R. 40°46' X 36°32' AA 6 O 

Kentrites R. Centritis Botan cayi CM Pf k; 

Jerm R. ^ 

KhaburR. Xabor R. E. 55 (1) E. D-5 

K'abaros p 

Kizil cay See Karmir R. gj 

Kizil irmak Qyzyl Yrmaq Halys G. 270 U. 324 D I g 

41°45' X 35°59' 
Kdmiir cayi H. 414 (4) U. 340 A I Coordinates given are for the ^ 

39°40' x 39°03' locality. W 

Kor su See Koroy jor. o° 

Koroyjor Kor su E. 61 E. G-5 ^ 

Kotoroy R. Kotur cayi E. 60 E. G-6 ^ 

Kotur cayi Kotoroy R. Karmir R. AA 7 w 

Kulp su Kulp dere U. 340 A III 

Kur See Kura R. 

KuraR. Kur Cyrus R. G. 437 

Mtkvari R. 39°24' X 49°19' AA 6 

E. 61 E. B5-G8 


Kuru cayi G. 442 (8) U. 341 B III £ 

38°35' X 38°22' * 

Lice See Saromsuyu. 

Li&k See Perisuyu. 

Limb See Lumb. 

Lumb R. Limb R. See Ch. XI n. 60. 


— — ■ ■ fcO 

Lychnitis L See Sevan L. tj 

Lycus R See Lykos R. 

LykosR. Lycus R. Gayl R. CM Lc 

Kelkit gayi 
Maden suyu Arghana su U. 340 A IV The coordinates in G. 452 do 

not suit the indicated locality. 

Mahmedik cay See Mehmedik. 

Maku cay Tehnut R. AA 7 

Maligir Mirangir U. 340 A III 

Mananali R. Tuzlasuyu E. 65 E. G-4 

AA105 > 

Marat See Mrit. g 

Marmet R. Mermenid R. E. 65 E. G-5 !z! 

Mermid R. AA 105 S 

Kara su 

MecZawR See Zab R. 

Mehmedik deresi Mahmedik cay Arcisak R. E. 39 E. G-5 

Memedik deresi U. 340 B IV 

MelR. TeleboasR. E. 70 E. G-4 

Kara suyu 

Memedik See Mehmedik deresi. 

Menaskut R. Harbe deresi ? See Ch. I n. 32b. 

Mermenid See Marmet R. 

Mermid See Marmet R. 

Meruli .See Imerhav cayi. 

Mirangir See Maligir R. 

MiwsGaylR. Mews Gayl Keli R. E. 70 E. G-4 See Ch. I nn. 25-26. 

Li6ik R. AA 105 



MritR. Marat R. E. 71 E. B-4 

Mrul R. E. 71 E. B-4 

Mtkvari See Kura R. 

Munzur deresi Muzur G. 479 U. 340 A IV 

Mzur 38°46' X 39°27' 

Murat nehri Euphrates- G. 480 U. 341 B III 

Arsanias R. 38°52' X 38°48 s g 

Mure See Murcamawr. ^ 

Murcamawr R. Mure R. Araxes R. E. 71 E. G-4 ^ 

Egri g 

Murgulsuyu deresi G. 480 U. 324 C II ^ 

41°20' X 41°40' # 

Muzur R. Munzur deresi E. 71 E. G-3 < 

Mzur R. AA 105 # 

Mzur See Muzur R. 

Nazikgolii G. 486 U. 340 A III tr 1 

38°50' X 42°16' AA 105 j* 

Nikephorios See Nymphios. £§ 

Nymphios R. Nikephorios K'alirt' R. CM Pf 

Sit it ma R. H 

Batmansuyu w. 

Oltucayi Bol x a R. G. 493 U. 324 C III 

40°50' X 41°40' AA 6 

PalinR. Perisuyu E. 76 E. G-3 

Miws Gayl R. 

Keli R. 
Perisuyu PalinR. G. 510 U. 340 A IV See Ch. I n. 25. ^ 

Miws Gayl R. 38°50' X 39°35' AA 6 ** 

Keli R. 

Li&k R. 
Piramis See Pyramus. 







Pontos Euxeinos 

Black S. 


E. B2-B4 
CM Da-Oa 



Pulafc dere 


U, 324 D III 

Piilk cayi 


39°51' X 40°07' 

U. 340 A I 

Pyramus R. 


Ceyhan nehri 

CM Jg-Kf 

Rah R. 

Arpa cayi 
Kars R. 


E. B-5 

Saris su 

.See Goksu nehri. 


Lice R. ? 

G. 541 

38021' X 40°54> 

U. 340 A III 


Sarsap deresi 

G. 541 

38°21' X 37°13' 

U. 341 B IV 

Sarus R. 

Saris su 

Goksu nehri 

CM Jf- Jg 

i— i 

Scylax R. 

Qekerek irmagi 

E. 81 

E. B-2 

CM Jc 


Sememe deresi 

G. 550 

39°56' X 40°45* 

U. 324 C IV 

Sevan L. 

Gelakuneac S. 
Lychnitis L. 

E. 47 

E. B-6 

Sit'it'ma R. 


See K'alirt' R. 

Spautan S. 

. See XJrmiah L. 

Talori deresi 


38°12' X 41°10> 

U. 340 A III 

Tatta L. 

Tuz golii 

CM He 

See Ch. IV n. 7. 

Thospitis L 

. See Van L. 

Tigris R. 

Dklat R. 

G. 597 

31°00' X 47°25' 

E, 86 

CM Pe Of 




Mrit R. Marat R. E. 71 E. B-4 

Mrui R. E. 71 E. B-4 

Mtkvari See Kura R. 

Munzur deresi Muzur G. 479 U. 340 A IV 

Mzur 38°46' X 39°27' 

Murat nehri Euphrates- G. 480 U. 341 B III 

Arsanias R. 38°52' X 38°48' 

Mure See Murcamawr. 

Murcamawr R. Mure R. Araxea R. E. 71 E. G-4 

Murgulsuyu deresi G. 480 U. 324 C II 

41°20' X 41040' 
Muzur R. Munzur deresi E. 71 E. G-3 

Mzur R. AA 105 

Mzur See Muzur R. 

Nazik golii G. 486 U. 340 A III 

38°50' X 42°16' AA 105 

Nikephorios See Nymphios, 

Nymphios R. Nikephorios K'alirt' R. CM Pf 

Sit'it'ma R. 

01tu9ayi Bol x a R. G. 493 U. 324 C III 

40°50' X 41°40' AA 6 

PalinR. Perisuyu E. 76 E. G-3 

Miws Gayl R. 

Keli R. 
Perisuyu PalinR. G. 510 U. 340 A IV See Ch. I n. 25. 

Miws Gayl R. 38°50' X 39°35' AA 6 

Keli R. 

Licik R. 
Piramis See Pyramus. 





tr 1 









Pontos Euxeinos 

Black S. 

E. 78 

E. B2-B4 
CM Da-Oa 


Pulat dere 


U. 324 D III 

Piilk cayi 


39°51' X 40°07' 

U. 340 A I 

Pyramus R. 


Ceyhan nehri 
Arpa cayi 
Kars R. 

E. 78 

CM Jg-Kf 
E. B-5 

Saris su . . . 

.See Goksu nehri. 


Lice R.? 

G. 541 

38°21' X 40°54' 

U. 340 A III 


Sarsap deresi 


38°21' x 37°13' 

XL 341 B IV 

Sarus R. 

Saris su 

Goksu nehri 

CM Jf- Jg 

i— i 

Scylax R. 

Qekerek irmagi 

E. 81 

E. B-2 

CM Jc 


Sememe deresi 

G. 550 

39°56' X 40°45' 

U. 324 C IV 

Sevan L. 
Sit'it'ma R. 


Gelakuneac S. 
Lychnitis L. 

E. 47 

E. B-6 

See K'aiirt' R. 

Spautan S. 

. See Urmiah L. 

Talori deresi 

G. 582 

38°12' x 41°10' 

V. 340 A III 

Tatta L. 

Tuz golii 

CM He 

See Ch. IV n. 7. 

Thospitis L 

. See Van L. 

Tigris R. 

Dklat R. 

G. 597 

31°00' X 47°25' 

E. 86 

CM Pe Of 









Thmit R. 

Tortum §ayi 

Tortum golii 

Tuz golii 


Urea j or R. 
Urmiah L. 


Varsak springs 
Vedi R. 


Ak gayi 
Maku 9ay 

Tatta L. 

Mananali R. 

Vedi R. 
Kapudan S. 
Kapautan S. 
Spautan S. 
Bznuneac S. 
Thospitis L 

Urea j or R. 
Akampsis R. 
Boas R. 
Qoruh nehri 
Kakamar R. 

E. 86 

E. G-6 

G. 604 

U. 324 C III 

40°47' X 



G. 604 

U. 324 C III 

40°47' X 


G. 610(2] 


38°45' X 


G. 610 

U. 340 A I 

39°43' x 



E. 76 


E. 58 

E. D-6 

E. 620 

U. 340 B IV 

38°33' X 



E. 32, 84 

E. B-4 

See Ch. XI n. 56. 
See Ch. XI n. 21. 

See Ch. Ill n. 24a. 

Xabor . 
Xos&b R. 

. See Khabur R. 

Yenice irmagi 
Ye§il irmagi 

Hayoc jor R. 
Ho§ap suyu 
Karmalas R. ? 
Iris R. 

E. 62 

G. 658 

37°36' X 35°35' 

G. 643 

41°24' x 36°35» 

U. 341 C I 
U. 324 D IV 









~~ ■ — — — - ■ ■ — ^ 

Yoh See Voh. ai 

ZabR. MecZaw G. 657 AA6 * 

36°00' X 43°21' 

E. 66 E. B-5 

Zamanti suyu See Yenice irmagi. 

Zanga See Hrazdan R. 

Zanginiardere Maku $ay AA 7 

Tlmut R. 

Zegam R See Jegam. 

Ziban Tigris See Tigris. 



i— i 


Since the original bibliography of Armenia in the Period of Justinian 
has of necessity become obsolete after the passage of more than half 
a century, and its form did not correspond to modern standards, this 
Bibliographical Note and the Bibliography which follows it are an 
attempt to indicate to the reader some of the major studies which 
have appeared since its publication. The vastness of Adontz's 
interests and the expansion of Armenian, Byzantine and Iranian 
studies in the intervening period preclude any suggestion of biblio- 
graphical completeness, so that only the most general outline has 
been attempted here. Wherever possible, more recent works sub- 
suming earlier scholarship and bibliography have been listed to remain 
within manageable bounds. Consequently, a number of familiar 
works have had to be omitted. A number of more specialized studies 
will be found in the Bibliography and in the relevant notes. In all 
these cases, however, numerous lacunae of which the editor remains 
painfully aware must strike the various specialists. At best, therefore, 
this Note is intended as an introduction to the student, and not as 
a guide to the experienced scholar. 

Before turning to the works of other specialists, we should note that 
Adontz, himself, developed and reworked much of the material found 
in Armenia in the Period of Justinian in a number of subsequent 
studies many of which will be found listed below in the Bibliography. 
For a more extensive listing, both the obituary article in Handes 
Amsorya, LXI (May, 1947) and the bibliography in the Annuaire de 
rinstitut de philologie et d'histoire orientale et slave of the Universite 
Libre de Bruxelles, IV (1936) should be consulted as well as the article 
of K. Yuzbasyan in PBH (1962/4). 

The single most relevant work at present for the study of Armenia in 
the Period of Justinian is unquestionably Cyril Toumanoff's Studies 
in Christian Caucasian History (Georgetown, 1963) in which he has 
expanded and re- worked most of the subjects treated earlier by 
Adontz, with the possible exception of the Armenian Church which 

* For the full reference on each entry, the Bibliography should be consulted where 


is discussed only tangentially. Toumanoff's extensive work on the 
history, geography and particularly the social structure of ancient 
and mediaeval Armenia, as well as of Transcaucasia, provides in 
one sense a new edition of Armenia in the Period of Justinian incorpor- 
ating both the subsequent scholarship and the necessary revisions. 
Hence, Adontz' s work now benefits by being read in conjunction with 
Toumanoff 's attendant commentary. 

I. The Sources 

In a number of cases the sources cited by Adontz have received 
more satisfactory editions, and for several classical works he relied 
on the obsolescent Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae, even 
though both Theophanes the Confessor and Theophylakt Simokattes 
had already appeared in the preferable editions of C. de Boor (1883 and 
1887). To these should now be added A. Pertusi's edition of Constan- 
tine Porphyrogenitus' de Thematibus (1952) and Moravcsik, Jenkins, 
et al.'s publication of the same emperor's de Administrado Imperio 
(1949, 1962). The Mommsen, Kriiger, et al. edition of the Corpus 
Juris Civilis has become standard despite some of the misgivings 
voiced by Adontz, and where it is available, the Conciliar documen- 
tation is probably better cited according to Schwartz's Acta Conciliorum 
Oecumenicorum (1914) than according to Mansi. There are better 
editions of several of the Episcopal Notitiae than the one of Pinder 
and Parthey, as was already observed by Louis Robert, Villes d'Asie 
Mineure, pp. 428 sqq., and Honigmann's Le Synekdemos d'Hierohles 
et V opuscule geographique de Georges de Chypre (1939) should now be 
consulted on both these treatises. Finally, Miller's Itineraria Romana 
(1916) is the standard edition for the Itinerarium Antonini and the 
Tabula Peutingeriana. Although the volumes of the Loeb Classical 
Library are of variable quality and in numerous instances to be checked 
against the critical edition of the text, they provide a convenient and 
generally accurate English translation of the original ; when available, 
however, the French translations in the parallel Bude series are often 

In the case of Syriac sources such as Ephraem Syrus, John of 
Ephesus, or Ps. Zacharias of Mitylene, the versions published in the 
Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium have superseded earlier 


Armenian sources unfortunately continue to lack critical editions 
in far too many instances ; moreover, such editions as " Agat'angelos ", 
Movses Kaktnkatwaci, and Movses Xorenaci (Tiflis, 1909, 1912, 1913), 
Mal^asyanc's Sebeos (Erevan, 1939), and Abrahamyan's Yovhannes 
Mamikonean (Erevan, 1941), are still difficultly obtainable, and were 
regrettably inaccessible to this editor. Nevertheless, a number of 
new editions have replaced those used by Adontz: Akinian's Koriwn 
(Vienna, 1952), Ter Minaseanc's Elise (Erevan, 1957), Melik' - Ohan- 
Janyan's Kirakos Ganjakeci, (Erevan, 1961), Yuzbasyan's Aristakes 
Lastivertci (Erevan, 1963). A new version of Yakovb Karneci is to 
be found in volume II of Hakobyan's Minor Chronicles of the XIII- 
XVIII C. (1958), and the first volume of the Armenian Book of Canons 
containing the Canons of St. Sahak, appeared in 1964. The so-called 
Diegesis or Narratio de Rebus Armeniae, which Adontz preferred to 
cite in his own copy of the MS rather than according to the Combef isius' 
edition fathered by Migne simultaneously on the elusive " Isaac 
Katholikos " (PG CXXXII) and Philip the Solitary (PG CXXVII), 
has now received the excellent edition of Garitte in the CSCO (1952). 

Translations of Armenian sources into western languages, with the 
outstanding exception of Dowsett's The History of the Caucasian 
Albanians by Movses Dasyuranci (1961) and his Penitential of Dawit* 
of Ganjak in the CSCO (1961), have hardly changed since Adontz's 
time, and remain almost uniformely unsatisfactory. 

Considerable epigraphic material unavailable to Adontz has come 
to light in recent years. The pre- Armenian, Urartian period has 
been illuminated by Melikishvili's edition and translation of the 
Urartian inscriptions, Urartskie klinoobraznye nadpisi (1960), comple- 
mented by D'iakonov's Urartskie pis'ma i dokumenty (1963) and his 
" Assyro-Babylonian Sources on the History of Urartu ", VDI (1951). 
The Armavir inscriptions of the formerly unidentified Erwandian- 
Orontid rulers of Armenia, some of the Aramaic inscriptions of the 
Artaxiad dynasty, and the Garni inscription of king Trdat III, together 
with a number of other epigraphic sources, have been collected in 
K. Trever's Ocherki po istorii kultury drevnei Armenii (1953). The 
Nemrud dag inscriptions of the kings of Kommagene, whom Toumanoff 
has linked with the Zariadrid dynasty of Sophene, are found in Jalabert 
and Mouterde, Inscriptions de Syrie, I, until the expected publication 
of the final report on Nimrud dag by T. Goell and F.K. Dorner, 


and a list of the more recently discovered Artaxiad Aramaic inscrip- 
tions is given by Perikhanian in lier latest article in the RE A (1966). 
Three volumes of the Corpus Inscriptionum Armenicarum are now out 
(I960, 1966, 1967), and such collection of foreign sources on Armenia as 
Mehk'set'-Bek, Georgian Sources concerning Armenia and the Armenians 
(1934, 1936, 1955) and Nalbandian, Arabic Sources Concerning Ar- 
menian and the Neighbouring Lands (1965), should likewise be consulted. 

The great Sasanian inscriptions, whose discovery has greatly affected 
Armenian chronology especially in the third century, are to be found in 
the following publications: Herzfeld, Paikuli (1924), Nyberg, Hdjjldbdd 
(1945), Sprengling, Third Century Iran (1953), and Maricq, Res Gestae Divi 
Sapor is (1958) which contains the earlier bibliography. For the earlier 
Achemenian inscriptions, the standard text at present is Kent, Old 
Persian (1953). Finally, the Greek and Latin inscriptions found in 
Armenia and Pontus were collected by Anderson, Cumont and 
Gregoire in Studia Pontica y III (1910). 

Adontz was acutely aware of the fact that all hypotheses on Ar- 
menian history and culture were, of necessity, only as sound as the 
sources on which they were based, and he turned repeatedly to this 
problem both in Armenia in the Period of Justinian, and in subsequent 
studies. Nevertheless, the status of many crucial Armenian literary 
sources remains equivocal and controversial at best. The most 
convenient introduction to the multiple problems of this subject is 
found in M. Abeiyan's Hayoc hin grahanut'yan Patmufiwn (1944, 
1946), but this work should be complemented in most cases, since 
Abelyan's views have not been invariably shared by his colleagues. 
The most convenient resume of the continuing controversy over 
the date and purpose of the History attributed to Movses Xorenaci 
in which Adontz actively participated is given by Toumanoff in his 
Studies, and his recent article in HA (1961). On the various problems 
of the compilation traditionally associated with the name of Agat'- 
angelos, but for which recent scholars tend to prefer the descriptive 
title of Gregorian Cycle, the fundamental study is Garitte's admirable 
Documents pour Vetude du livre d'Agathange (1946), now comple- 
mented by his study in AB (1965). A resume of the 
literature on the Armenian Geography formerly attributed to 
Movses Xorenaci can be found in Eremyan's Hayastan est " Asx ar ' 
hacoyc " (1963) and in Hewsen's useful abstract in the RE A (1965). 
On the so-called Anonymous or Primary History of Armenia, usually 
found in conjunction with the History of Sebeos, see Adontz 's own 


study, Markwart in Ca (1930), Mal^asyanc in VV (1949) Abgaryan, 
Sebeosi Patmufiwn (1965) and Toumanoff, Studies. On Koriwn's 
Life of Mesrop Mastoc, see once again Adontz's work, Akinian 
in HA (1949), and the collections of articles on Mesrop Mastoc published 
by the Armenian Academy of Sciences (1962) and the University of 
Erevan (1963). On P'awstos Buzand, see Excursus U in Stein's 
Histoire du Bas Empire, II (1949), on Elise, Akinian's numerous 
articles in HA (1931-1937, 1950-1951), on Lewond, likewise Akinian, 
HA (1929). On Sebeos, the most recent extensive study is Abgaryan's 
Sebeosi Patmufiwn (1965), though Abgaryan's conclusions have 
not been definitively accepted. On the alteration of the date of 
"Octanes' History of Armenia, see Peeters, " Sainte Sousanik " in AB 
(1935), on Movses Kalankatwaci or Das^uranci, Akinian, HA (1952, 
1956-1958) and Dowsett, History of the Caucasian Albanians (1961). 
On the Treatise attributed to Eznik the Priest, see Akinian's answer 
to Adontz, HA (1938). Finally the Code of M^itfar Gos and its 
relationship with other such works has attracted considerable attention 
e.g. Samuelean, Myi£ar Gosi Datastanagirk'n (1911), Tigranian, 
IKIAI (1925), Kiwleserean, HA (1926), Hamt'yunyan's Introduction 
to Papovian's translation, Armianskii Sudebnik Mkhitara Gosha 
(1954), Galstyan in his edition of Smbat Sparapet's DatastanagirF 
(1958), Pivazyan, BM (1960), and T'orosyan, BM (1962). See also 
Mecerian, BA (1947-1948), and Pigulevskaia's article on the Syrian 
Lawcode, UZL (1952). As in all cases of actively controverted subjects, 
all these interpretations and the bibliography must remain provisional. 

II. Geography 

Adontz's book was composed at a time when Hiibschmann's great 
study, Die altarmenischen Ortsnamen (1904) had already appeared 
as had the earlier works of Lehmann-Haupt and of Markwart. The 
later publications of these authors should, however, be consulted, 
especially Lehmann-Haupt's Armenian einst und jetzt (1910-1931) 
and Markwart's Skizzen zur historischen Topographie (1928), Siid- 
armenien und die Tigrisquellen (1930), and his recently published 
MS on the province of Parskahayk' in RE A (1966). 

The major recent study of the eastern frontier of the Byzantine 
Empire is Honigmann's Die Ostgrenze des byzantinischen Reiches 
(1935), and a systematic attempt not only to identify and locate, 


but also to estimate the territory of the various districts and provinces 
mentioned in the Armenian Geography has been presented in Ere- 
myan's Hayastan dst " Asxarhacoyc " (1963). Wherever possible the 
multiple articles of Barthold and of Minorsky in the EI should likewise 
be consulted as well as Hakobyan's As^arhagruVyun (1968). 

The topographical information provided by the various Itineraries 
crossing Armenia has been studied by Miller, Itineraria Romana (1916), 
and with a more precise focus on their sections dealing with Armenia, 
by Eremyan, VDI (1939), and Manandian, Manr hetazotufyunner 
(1932), Hayastani gl^avor canaparhnerd (1936), and the Trade and 
Cities of Armenia (1944). 

Considerable information on Armenian ecclesiastical geography, 
as well as on secular topography, is provided in Honigmann's other 
studies, particularly in his notes to the Synekdemos of Hierokles, in 
Eveques et eveches monophysites d'Asie Anterieure (1951), and in the 
article on the location of Romanopolis, which appeared in his Trois 
memoires posthumes (1961). The same is true of Garitte's commen- 
taries to both the Documents pour V etude du livre d'Agathange, and the 
Narratio de rebus Armeniae. 

In addition to these works, information on Armenian geography 
is also found in Ruge's articles in PW, Minorsky' s " Transcaucasia ", 
J A (1930) and his notes to the Hudud al-Alam (1937), Kanayeanc, 
Anyayt gawafner hin Hayastani (1914), Manandian, Hin Hayastani 
mi k'ani problemneri masin (1944), and Patmakan-Asxarhagrakan 
manr hetazotufyunner (1945), Dashian's articles on the western border- 
lands of Armenia, HA (1937-1945), Appendix X of Goubert's Byzance 
et VOrient, I (1951), Canard's, Histoire de la dynastie des Wamdanides, 
I (1951). 

For the peripheral lands discussed by Adontz as being at times 
part of Armenia, see, in addition to the notes in the Hudud al-'Alam, 
Minorsky's History of Sharvdn and Darband (1958) and Barthold's 
earlier Mesto prekaspiiskikh oblastei (1924), for the Caspian districts ; 
Pigulevskaya, Mesopotamiia na rubezhe V-VI vv. (1940), Honigmann, 
Die Ostgrenze, Eveques et eveches, and Le Couvent de Barsauma (1954), 
as well as Canard, Histoire des H'amdanides, and Dillman's article 
in S (1961) together with his La Haute- Mesopotamie orientate (1961), 
for Mesopotamia and north Syria; Honigmann's Ostgrenze, and his 
article " Kommagene ", PW , IV, Dashian's articles in HA (1937- 
1945), Pertusi's commentary on Costantino Porfirogenito de Thema- 


tibus (1952), and Tiracean's article on Kommagene in I AN A (1956), 
on the west; and finally, Markwart's Skizzen, Honigmann, Ostgrenze, 
Manadian, The Trade and Cities of Armenia, Excursus II in Mncaka- 
nyan's Alvanic Asyarhi ... surp (1966), and Hakobyan's Siunihi 
T'agavorutfyuna (1966), for the northern borders. 

Throughout the area studied by Adontz, the problem of the topo- 
nymy remains a nightmare for the investigator. Western Asia 
Minor has received considerable attention lately in the many studies 
of Louis Robert, but the east of the peninsula remains well nigh 
terra incognita, especially since maps of this area are generally either 
totally inadequate or unobtainable as classified military information. 
The survival of ancient Urartian toponyms in Armenian is discussed 
by Banateanu, HA (1961), Wittek's article on the transition from 
Byzantine to Turkish Toponymy, B (1935) is very useful, and the 
Department of the Interior's Gazetteer No. 46 : Turkey provides 
coordinates for most sites together with the version of their name as 
of ca. I960, but a systematic concordance of ancient and modern 
toponyms, and particularly of their recent, multiple, and rapidly 
changing avatars is an imperative necessity. 

III. Philology 

Armenian linguistics and philology have been until now the most 
active fields of Armenology. Consequently, there can be no question 
of attempting to give here a review of the extensive literature which 
has been added to this subject, all the more so because of Adontz's 
generally peripheral treatment thereof. 

The first edition of Meillet's Grammaire comparee de VArmenien 
classiques appeared as early as 1902, though Adontz gives no indication 
of his being familiar with it as he was with the works of both Hiibsch- 
mann and de Lagarde. Of Meillet's other works and Benveniste's 
constant studies in BSL, REA, HA, etc., such studies as Meillet's 
" Quelques mots parthes ", REA (1922), Benveniste's " Titres 
iraniens en Armenien ", REA (1929), and Titres et noms propres 
en Iranien aneien (1966) should be mentioned here as directly 
relevant to Adontz's interpretation of nayarar terminology, as is 
Dowsett's challenge of the etymologies proposed by him for such 
terms as ter, tikin, in the Memorial du Centenaire de V^cole des langues 


orientales anciennes of the Institut Catholique (1964). In view of 
Dowsett's query of Adontz's capacities as a philologist, of Benvenist's 
suggestion of an Iranian origin for such a term as awzit, which Adontz 
derived from Syriac, and of the growing evidence for the close con- 
nexion between mediaeval Armenian and Parthian, the linguistic 
aspects of Armenia in the Period of Justinian should probably be 
revised in the light of new scholarship. 

For the characteristics of Classical Armenian and its development, 
see in addition to Meillet's Grammaire comparee, Karst, Geschichte 
der armenischen Philologie (1930), Acafyan, Liakatar k'erakanut'yun 
Hayoc lezvi (1955), and Benveniste, BSL (1959) on phonetics and 
syntax. On the evolution of the language, see Akinian, HA (1932), 
Lap'ancyan, Hayoc lezvi patmufiwn (1961), Lazaryan, Hayoc grakan 
lezvi patmufiwn (1961), and Manandian's Yunaban dprocd (1928), 
on the influence of the Hellenistic school. When possible, Acafyan' s 
difficultly procurable Hayeren armatakan bararan (1926-1935), should 
also be consulted, even though not all of his etymologies have proved 

On the origin of Armenian and its relationship with other Indo- 
European and non Indo-European languages, see Lap'ancyan K prois- 
khozhdeniiu Armianskogo iasyka(194:^), and the articles in his I storiko- 
lingvisticheskie raboty (1956) together Avith the objections of D'iakonov, 
" Khetty, Frigiitsy i Armiane ", Peredneaziatskii Sbornik (1961), 
as well as Haas, HA (1961). For the classification of Armenian within 
the Indo-European system, see Pedersen, Le groupement des dialectes 
indo-europeens (1925), Solta, Die Stellung des Armenischen im Kreise 
der indogermanischen Sprache (1960), and Garibian's report to the 
XXV Congress of Orientalists (1960). On the relations of Armenian 
and Iranian, see Meillet, REA (1921), Benveniste, HA (1927) and 
RE A (1964), Bolognesi, Le fonti dialettali degli imprestiti iranici in 
Armeno (1960), and his article in HA (1961) ; for Armenian and Phry- 
gian, Haas, HA (1939), and Bonfante, AQ (1946). See also Deeters, 
"Armenisch und Siidkaukasisch " (1926-1927), Vogt, NT (1938), 
and for Marr's highly controversial theory, Thomas, The Linguistic 
Theories of N. J a. Marr (1957). Finally, for a survey of the work 
of the Institute of Linguistics of the Armenian SSR, see Kostanyan, 
VIA (1958). 


IV. Rome and Iran 

For works relating to Armenia see below section V. 

On the administrative system of the Later Roman Empire and its 
eastern provinces, the main general works at present are Magie, 
Roman Rule in Asia Minor (1950), Jones, The Cities of the Eastern 
Roman Provinces (1937), and The Later Roman Empire (1964), although 
Rostovtzeff, Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire (1926), 
Broughton, Roman Asia Minor (1938), Pigagnol, V Empire chretien 
(1947), and Palanque's edition of Stein's Histoire du Bas Empire 
(1949, 1959), should also be consulted. For the post-Justinianic 
period, as well as the earlier one, the most recent Byzantine histories, 
such as Ostrogorsky's History of the Byzantine State (1957) and the 
new edition of volume IV of the Cambridge Medieval History, are 
the most convenient references. 

For a more recent discussion of Diocletian's reforms and eastern 
policy, and the pre-Justinianic administration of the Armenian terri- 
tories, see Costa's article in the Dizionnario Epigrafico (1912), Seston, 
Diocletien (1946) Cumont's " L 'annexion ... de la Petite Armenie ", 
in Anatolian Studies (1923), and Ensslin's " Zur Ostpolitik des Kaiser's 
Diokletians ", SB AW (1952). On Diocletian's military system, see 
Nischer's article in the JRS (1923), and van Berchem, Uarmee de 
Diocletien (1952) ; on the praetorian prefecture: Stein, Untersuchung 
ilber das Officium Prdtorianerprafektur (1922), Palanque, Essai sur 
la prefecture du pretoire (1933), and de Laet, ARBEL (1946-1947); 
and on the fiscal policy: Pigagnol, VImpot de capitation sous le Bas- 
Empire Romain (1916), Deleage, La Capitation du Bas-Empire (1945), 
and Karayannopoulos, Das Finanzwesen des fruhbyzantinischen Staates 

On the period of Justinian, the latest major study is volume I of 
Rubin's Das Zeitalter lustinians (1960), but Palanque's edition of 
volume II of Stein's Histoire du Bas-Empire (1949) should also be 
consulted, as well as Vasiliev's Justin I (1950), Pigulevskaia's Mesopo- 
tamia na rubezhe V-VI vv. (1940), and Hannestad's articles on the 
relations with Transcaucasia and Central Asia in B (1955-1957), for 
the immediate background of the reign. On Justinian's legal activi- 
ties, see Collinet, Etudes historiques sur le droit de Justinien I (1912). 

For the partition of A.D. 591 and the relations of Maurice and 
Zusro II, see Goubert, Byzance et VOrient (1951) and his preliminary 


article in B (1949), Higgins' The Persian Wars of the Emperor Maurice 
(1939), with the clarification of the problem of chronology, and his 
article in the CHR (1941) on " International Eelations at the close 
of the Sixth Century ", also Minorsky's article in BSOAS (1945), 
Pigulevskaia's Yizantiia i Iran na rubezhe VI i VII vekov (1946), 
and Iskanyan, PBH (1960, 1963). 

On the still disputed problem of the Byzantine Themes and the date 
of their appearance, see the article of Baynes, in the EHR (1952), 
Ensslin, BZ (1953), Pertusi, Aevum (1954), Ostrogorsky, B (1954), 
Dolger, Historia (1955), again Pertusi and Ostrogorsky in the Acts 
of the XI International Congress of Byzantine Studies (1958), and 
particularly the book of Karayannopoulos, Die Entstehung der byzan- 
tinischen Themenordnung (1959) which contains a historiographical 
survey. On the similarity of the Byzantine administrative re-orga- 
nization and the Sasanian reforms of the sixth century, see Stein, 
BNJ (1920) and his review of Christensen's first edition of Ulran 
sous les Sassanides, Le Museon (1940), as well as Christensen's own 
acceptance of Stein's thesis in the second edition of his work (1944), 
excursus II. This thesis has, however been rejected by most recent 
Byzantinists among them Ostrogorsky, Pertusi, and Karayannopoulos. 

On Early Iranian studies in general, see Henning's Bibliography 
of Important Studies on Old Iranian Subjects (1950). Minorsky's 
articles in AO (1932-1951), and Frye's The Heritage of Persia (1963), 
which gives a good summary of recent interpretations together with 
useful bibliographical notes, particularly for Russian publications. 
For surveys of Iranian monuments and inscriptions see Henning, 
Mitteliranisch (1959), and Vander Bergh, L y Archeologie de VIran 
ancien (1959). 

On the successive periods of Iranian history relevant to Adontz's 
discussion, see, for the pre-Persian era, D'iakonov, Istoriia Medii 
(1956) and Aliev, Midiia - drevneishee gosudarstvo na teritorii Azer- 
baidzhana (1956), and for the Achaemenians: Echtecham's Ulran sous 
les Achemenides (1946), Olmstead's posthumously published, Persian 
Empire (1948) ; and Leuze's Die Satrapien (1935). Much still remains 
to be done on the Seleucid-Parthian periods despite Tarn's " Seleucid- 
Parthian Studies ", in PBA (1930), Bikerman's, Les Institutions des 
Seleucides (1938), the vast material accumulated in the notes to Rostov- 
tzeff's Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World (1941), 
the appearance of Debevoise's Political History of Parthia (1938), 


and particularly of Wolski's articles in Eos (1946, 1954), the Bulletin 
of the Polish Academy of Sciences (1947), and Ber. (1956-1957). Nu- 
merous studies on the archaeological finds at Nisa and their evidence 
as to the nature of early Parthian society have been published in the 
Soviet Union: e.g. Masson, VDI (1950), D'iakonov and Livshits, 
Dokumenty iz Nisy (1960), VDI (1960), Sbornik v Chest AJcad. LA. 
Orbeli (1960), and new material is constantly appearing. On the 
contacts between the Parthian Arsacids and Rome, see Dobias' article 
in Archiv Orientalni (1931), and the recent synthesis by Bokshanin, 
Parfiani i Rim (1960). 

For the Sasanians, the locus classicus is still the second edition of 
Christensen's LIran sous les Sassanides (1944), although the various 
studies on the inscriptions should also be consulted, especially Honig- 
mann and Maricq, Recherches sur les Res Gestae Divi Saporis (1953), 
and Sprengling's critique of earlier accounts of Sahpuhr I's campaigns 
in his Iran in the Third Century (1953). On the early period see also 
Taquizadeh, BSOAS, XI (1943-1946), Frye, in the Studi dedicated 
to Levi della Vida (1956), and Lukonin, Iran v epolchu pervykh Sasa- 
nidov (1961). On the wars against the Romans, see in addition to 
the studies listed above in reference to the partition of 591, Olmstead, 
CP (1942), Rostovtzeff, Ber. (1943), Caratelli, La Parola del Passato 
(1947), and Ensslin, SBAW (1947), all on the activities of Sahpuhr I, 
together with their critique by Sprengling in Third Century Iran. 
On the Sasanian north and west frontier, see also Eremyan, IAFAN 
(1941) and Nyberg, in the Studia dedicated to Bernhard Karlgren 
(1959). Finally on the administration of the empire, see, in addition 
to Christensen, Stein's earlier article in BNJ (1920) and his review 
of Christensen in Le Museon (1940). 

Duchesne-Guillemin's La religion de VIran ancien (1962) provides a 
convenient introduction to the subject, but see also: Unvala, Obser- 
vations on the Religion of the Parthians (1925), Jackson, Zoroastrian 
Studies (1928), Bidez and Cumont, Les mages hellenises (1938), Spreng- 
ling, " Kartir" AJSL (1940), Wikander, Feuerpriester in Kleinasiens 
und Iran (1946), Widengren, Numen (1956) and Les religions de VIran 
(1968), Chaumont, RHR (1960), Zaehner, The Dawn and Twilight of 
Zoroastrianism (1961), Benveniste, J A (1964), and on Kartir's mission- 
ary activity, de Menasce, AEHE (1956). 

For the Iranian social structure and its bases, see Benveniste 5 s 
articles, J A (1932, 1938), Le vocabulaire (1969) and Dumezil's controver- 


sial thesis in Naissance d'archanges (1945), and Uideologie tripartite des 
Indo-Europeens (1958) ; on existing institutions, Mazaheri, La famille 
iranienne (1938), Henning, JRAS (1953), Wolski's article on the Arsacid 
period, Eos (1954) and Widengren's " Recherches sur le feodalisme ira- 
nien ", OS (1956). Finally, on the system of taxation and the lower clas- 
ses of society, see Fateh, BSOAS (1938), Solodukho, SV (1948), Perik- 
hanian, VDI (1952), Pigulevskaia, VDI (1937), and Les villes de 
Vetat iranien (1963), and Altheim and Stiehl's highly controversial 
Ein asiatischer Stoat (1954). 

V. Armenia 

Despite the passage of more than half a century, no satisfactory 
general history of Armenia has appeared in a western language since 
the publication of Armenia in the Period of Justinian, De Morgan's 
Histoire du peuple armenien (1919) and Grousset's Histoire de V Armenie 
(1947) are on the whole disappointing, or too old to incorporate recent 
discoveries. In spite of its great value for reference purposes, Touma- 
noff's Studies in Christian Caucasian History, provides no systematic 
historical treatment, as is evident from its title. The most useful 
general history of ancient and medieval Armenia at present conse- 
quently is Manandian's K'nnakan tesut'yun Hay zolovrdi patmut'yan 
(1945-1952), and for the Roman period, Asdourian's Die politischen 
Beziehungen zwischen Armenien und Rom (1911), although it too 
requires rectification on a number of points. See also Sarkisian's 
bibliographical survey, VDI (1967). 

On the periodization of Armenian history presented by Adontz, 
see the critique of Manandian, Feodalism hin Hayastanum (1934) and 
The Trade and Cities of Armenia (1944), and Toumanoff, Studies, 
as well as the suggestions of Eremyan in 7/(1951). 

Armenian chronology is still studded with problems and contra- 
dictions even on such crucial points as the date of the Christianization 
of the country, a point on which Adontz, himself proposed a revision 
in his subsequent study " Les vestiges d'un ancien culte en Armenie ", 
AIPHO (1936). A number of corrections in the chronology were 
already made by Asdourian in his Beziehungen, and for the third 
century A.D., the studies of Maricq, S (1955, 1957) and Kasuni, 
AJcos (1957) have helped bring a modicum of precision into a picture 


which is still extremely confused. For the date of Diocletian's re- 
establishment of Trdat III on the throne of Armenia, the evidence 
of the Sasanian inscriptions must now be taken into consideration, 
cf. Herzfeld, Paikuli, Sprengling, Third Century Iran, Honigmann- 
Maricq, Recherches, and Eremyan's relation of this material to Ar- 
menia, PBH (1966). For the period of the Christian Arsacids, see 
the major revision proposed by Baynes, EHR (1910), which has not, 
however, been accepted by all scholars, and on particular events, 
Peeters, " L' Intervention politique de Constance II ", ARBBL (1931), 
" Le debut de la persecution de Sapor ", REA (1921). as well as the 
notes and commentary in Garitte's Documents pour Vetude du livre 
d'Agathange and the Narratio de rebus Armeniae. The most recent 
discussion of Armenian fourth century chronology, hinging on the 
date of the Christianization of Armenia, has been given by Ananian, 
Le Museon (1961), who includes a resume of other theses, but holds 
to the general chronological framework of Manandian and Garitte, 
rejecting Baynes' revision. 

The period of Armenian history which has benefitted from the most 
attention of late, is the earliest pre-Christian era of which Adontz 
regretted the almost total ignorance in Armenia in the Period of 
Justinian, but to which he too devoted himself in his last major work, 
Histoire d'Armenie (1946). The enormous quantity of material 
uncovered by Urartian archaeology, complemented by the deciphering 
of the Urartian inscription, cannot even be broached in a brief intro- 
duction such as this. The most convenient summaries of the scholar- 
ship and bibliography of the subject can be found in Piotrovskii, 
Vanskoe Tsarstvo (1959), Melikishvili, Nairi-Urartu (1954), Manan- 
dian, nekotorykh spornykh problemakh (1956), Lap'ancean, Istoriko- 
Lingvisticheskie raboty (1957), and van Loon, Urartian Art (1966), 
but the constant publication of new excavation reports and articles 
make all syntheses rapidly obsolete and the periodical literature must 
invariably be consulted. For the ethnographic pattern of early 
Armenia and the neighbouring lands, see below section VII. 

On the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods, our knowledge has 
likewise been radically altered by Manandian' s identification of the 
native Erwandian-Orontid dynasty, cf. Manandian, The Trade and 
Cities of Armenia (1944) and Trever's Ocherki po istorii kultury drevnei 
Armenii (1953), which contains most of the relevant inscriptions. 
For the development of Manandian's thesis, and the link between 


the Orontids, the Zariadrids of Sophene, and the dynasts of Kommagene 
commemorated in the Nimrud-dag inscriptions, see Toumanoff s 
Studies in Christian Caucasian History, which incorporates the material 
and conclusions of earlier articles, and Sargisyan, Hellenistakan darasr- 
jani Hayastand (1966). See also Tiracyan in IAN A (1956), and his 
report to the XXVth Congress of Orientalists (1960). The discovery 
of the Aramaic inscriptions of the Artaxiads have also suggested 
the need for a re- evaluation of the nature of both the Artaxiad and 
the Zariadrid dynasties in relation to each other and to the contempor- 
ary powers, cf. in addition to the works of Toumanoff and Trever 
already mentioned, Perikhanian's article, RE A (1966) for the recent 

For Armenia's history as a buffer state between the Romans and 
the Persians, see the following studies in addition to Asdourian's 
Beziehungen and the relevant works listed in section IV: on the reign 
of Tigran II and the distorting image given by Roman sources- Manan- 
dian, Tigran II i Rim (1943), as well as Eckhardt, K (1909-1910), 
Giize, K (1926), Manandian, VDI (1939, 1940); on the wars of Nero 
ending in the compromise peace of Rhandeia, Schur- K (1923, 1925), 
Kudriavtsev, VDI (1948, 1949); and for Trajan's temporary annexa- 
tion- Lepper, Trajan's Parthian War (1948). On the period of the 
Christian Arsacids, see, in addition to the works already mentioned 
under chronology, Akinian HA (1935), Ensslin, K (1936), Stein, 
Histoire du Bas-Empire, I (1959), and Doise, REAnc. (1945), for the 
fourth century; Mecerian, BA (1953), Eremyan, VDI (1953), and 
Iskanyan, PBH (1966), for the Persian war of 450-451 ; and Goubert, 
Byzance et V Orient, on the period of Maurice. 

VI. The Church 

On the general history of the early Church and its institutions 
touched upon in Adontz's discussion, the most convenient survey 
is still Fliche and Martin, Histoire de V&glise (1946), and on specific 
points, the DTC and DHGE are useful as are Grumel's Regestes des 
Actes du Patriarcat de Constantinople (1932). See also Stein, ZNW 
(1935) and Dvornik, The Idea of Apostolicity in Byzantium (1958). 

On the first oecumenical councils and their participants, Laurent's 
" Les sources a consulter ", EO (1931), Honigmann's valuable articles 


in B (1939, 1944), and his Patristic Studies (1953), must be consulted, 
as well as Schwartz's study in ABAWM (1937) and the Prosopographia 
and Topographia which he included in volume II- vi of the ACO. 
On the Council of Chalcedon in particular, see the collection of articles 
in Grillmeier and Bacht, Das Konzil von Chalkedon (1951-1954), Sellers, 
The Council of Chalcedon (1961), and in its relation to Armenia, Sar- 
kissian, The Council of Chalcedon and Armenia (1965). 

On the geography of the eastern church, Schwartz's and Ilonig- 
mann's above mentioned articles are indispensable, as are Honigmann's 
notes to the Synekdemos of Hierokles, and his fiveques et eveches mono- 
phy sites (1951), Le Couvent de Barsauma (1954), and Trois memoir es 
posihumes (1961). Peeter's Recherches d'histoire et de philologie orien- 
tates (1951), and his articles in AB, some of which are included in the 
preceeding collection, as well as Garitte's notes to " Agathangetos " 
and the Narratio are likewise essential. 

For the Armenian Church, studies still begin with Ormanian's 
Azgapatum (1914-1927). Tournebize's Histoire politique et religieuse 
de VArmenie (1910) can occasionally be useful despite its age and bias, 
and Kogean's recent and controversial Hayoc Ekelecin, should also 
be consulted, but Mecerian's Histoire et institutions de V^glise arme- 
nienne (1965) has proved unexpectedly disappointing. All the works 
of Honigmann, Peeters, and particularly Garitte, already cited, are 
directly relevant for a study of early Armenian Christianity, as is 
Markwart's posthumous Die Entstehung der armenischen Bistumer 
(1931). The most recent survey of the numerous points of controversy 
is given by van Esbroeck in AB (1962). On the question of hereditary 
ecclesiastical estates, Perikhanian's study on pagan temple-estates, 
Khramovye OUedinenie (1959) is of considerable interest, albeit dealing 
exclusively with the pre-christian period. 

VII. The Naxarar System 

As indicated at the beginning of this note, all future investigations 
of the Armenian nax^rar system should begin with Toumanoff's 
extensive Studies in Christian Caucasian History (1963), and the 
studies of Iranian institutions and terminology mentioned above will 
invariably prove relevant. 

For the early social structure of Transcaucasia and the neigh- 


bouring lands, and the complicated ethnographic pattern of the area, 
the first section of Toumanoff s Studies may be complemented by 
a number of additional works: Hiising's Die V biker AltMeinasiens 
und am Pontus (1933), Anderson, Alexander's Gate (1932), Java^isvili's 
and Usakov's articles in VDI (1939), Manandian's Hin Hayastani mi 
Fani problemneri masin (1944), Eremyan, VI (1952), Fields' Contri- 
bution to the Anthropology of the Caucasus (1953), Aliev's article in the 
SborMk v chest" Akad. I. A. Orbeli (1960), Melikishvili's report to the 
XXVth Congress of Orientalists (1960), and the collection of archae- 
ological articles under the editorship of M. Mellink, Dark Ages and 
Nomads (1964). For recent studies of Armenia's northern border- 
lands, see Trever, Ocherki po istorii i kultury kavkazskoi Albanii (1959), 
the collection of articles on Albania published by the Academy of 
Sciences of the Azerbajanian SSR (1962), Mnacakanyan's Alvanic 
as%arhi ... surj (1966), and Hakobyan's Syuniki T'agavorutfyund 
(1966). On early Armenian society see Manandian IZ (1945) for 
the pre-Arsacid period and Eremyan I A NA (1948) for the Hellenistic 

The entire validity of Adontz's thesis of a similarity between the 
Armenian naxarar system and western feudalism hinges on the premise 
that the term " feudalism " may properly be applied to other than 
medieval european institutions. In recent years, however, this 
assumption has been both challenged and defended, and the definition 
of " feudalism " as a rigorously circumscribed term, or as a general 
stage of development has been hotly debated, especially between 
western and Marxist scholars. Cf. Coulborn, Feudalism in History 
(1956), and Kosminski, Problemy angliskogo feodalisma (1963). More- 
over extensive new studies of western feudalism have altered the 
interpretation of this institution, so that a number of Adontz's con- 
clusions rest on concepts no longer acceptable to scholars. Conse- 
quently, much of the argument in Adontz's last chapter must now 
be revised in the light of such studies of feudalism as Bloch's epoch- 
making La societe feodale (1939), as well as more recent works such as 
Lot and Fawtier's Histoire des institutions francaises au Moyen-Age 
(1957-1958), Boutruche's Seigneurie et feodalite (1959), and Duby's 
Ueconomie rurale (1962). Although less directly related to Adontz's 
argument, the studies on Iranian " feudalism " and the Byzantine 
Themes, mentioned in section IV, as well as Ostrogorsky's Pour 
Vhistoire de la feodalite byzantine (1954), and Lemerle's series of articles 


on Byzantine agrarian history in RH (1958), provide valuable compa- 
rative material. 

Adontz developed his views on the Armenian social structure in his 
later study " Aspect iranien du servage ", (1937), and his comparison 
of the na^arar system to western feudalism was continued and ela- 
borated by Manandian, Feodalism Hin Hayastanum (1934). Armenian 
medieval society has also been investigated by Kherumian, " Esquisse 
d'une feodalite oubliee ", (1948-1949), more recently in Suki&syan's 
Obshchestvenno-politicheskii stroi i pravo Armenii (1963) and M.L. 
Chaumont JA (1966). 

On Armenian medieval law, see the studies of the Codes of M^it'ar 
Gos and Smbat Sparapet listed in section I, and works dealing with 
the Church, as well as Samuelyan's Hin Hay iravunk'i patmutfyun, 
I (1939), also the above mentioned studies of Manandian and Sukiasian, 
both of which give considerable attention to the regulations found in 
ecclesiastical canons. 

The status of the lower classes of society has attracted a good deal 
of attention in recent years, both in general works, and in such special- 
ized studies as Manandian' s Ditolafyunner hin Hayastani sinakanneri 
drufyan masin (1925) and Nyutfer hin Hayastani tntesakan kyank'i 
patmufyan (1928), Samuelyan's article in the Journal of the University 
of Erevan (1937), Hakobyan's in IAN A (1948), and Eremyan's VD1 
(1950), all on slavery, Eremyan's study of city-life, VDI (1953), Zaci- 
kyan's survey of popular movements, P'oFr HayWi socialakan sar- 
zumnere (1951), Hakobyan's major work on the Armenian peasantry, 
Hay gyulaciutfyan patmufyun (1957), and his articles PBH (1962, 

Finally for the history of individual nax^ar houses, see also Muyl- 
dermans, HA (1926), Scold, REA (1929) and Mlaker, WZKM (1932), 
on the Mamikonean; Kogean, Kamsarakannerd (1926); Markwart, 
Ca (1930) and Sahnazaryan, Ragratunyac na^ararakan tohmi cagum9 
(1948), on the Bagratids; Oskean, HA (1952), on the Rstuni; and 
Bakhudarian in the Sbornik v chest 9 Akad. I, A. Orbeli (1960), on the 


Note. All works have been listed according to the systems of 
abbreviations used in the notes. For the sake of convenience, titles 
in Armenian and in Russian have been transliterated as well as trans- 

All transliterations follow the systems indicated in the Preface to 
this edition. Diacritical marks have been used where required, but 
they have been disregarded insofar as English alphabetical order is 
concerned. In Armenian, the letter l between two vowels has been 
rendered as -w t e.g. 7*/*^ — Dwin. The letter [it = %, although 
in Greek, the traditional transliteration, x = C K h as been preserved. 

Familiar proper names have been given according to their traditional 
spelling, e.g. Dashian, rather than Tasean, and only one form has 
been used for each name irrespective of extant variants. 

* This Bibliography incorporates both the works listed in the 
original Russian edition and those which appeared subsequently. 
Works marked with an asterisk are those which were listed in the 
original edition. 

I. Sources 

Whenever available, the editions of the Loeb Classical Library [L] 
have been used for the sake of the parallel English text. 

For Armenian sources, the best obtainable edition has been used, 
but in a number of cases, the edition cited is regrettably less an index 
of its intrinsic value, than of its accessibility to the editor. 

** Sources marked with a double asterisk are those listed by 
Adontz in the original Bibliography without an indication of the 
edition used. 

Aa see " Agat'angelos ", Agat\ 

Ag see " Agat'angelos ", Ag. 

Agai\ see " Agat'angelos ", Agai\ 

" Agat'angelos " * Agat'angelos, Patmut'ivm [History], {Tiflis, 1883). 



Ag [Greek Vereion] 

Agat\ [Aa - Armenian Version] 
Va [Arabic Version] 

Vg [Life of St. Gregory] 


Amm. Marc. 

Anania Sirakaci 

Anastas Vardapet, List 

Anderson, J.G.C., 
Cumont, E., and Fr., 
Gregoire, H. 

Ajumymous History 

App. Mithr. 

App. Syr. 

" Agathangelus ", P. de Lagarde ed., AKGWG, XXXV 
(1889). Trans. : in GHAMA, I (1867), pp. 109-193. 
Agat'angelos, PatmuViwn [History], 3rd ed. (Venice, 1930). 
*" Martyrium sanctorum Gregorii et Rhipsimiae et 
Gaianae ", in Marr, Christianization, pp. 66-148. 
Latin trans. : in Garitte, Agathange, pp. 27-116. 
Agafangelosi arabalcan nor xmbagrut'iwnd [A New Arabic 
Version of Agat'angelos], A. Ter Lewondyan ed. (Erevan, 
1968). _-- r 

" IJpd^is Kal p,aprvpiov tov ayiov nal t evSoiov UpopidpTvpos 
rprjyoplov Tijs MeydXrjs 'Appuevtas, " in Garitte, Agathan- 
ge, pp. 23-116. 

" La Vie grecque in6dite de saint Gregoire d'Arm6nie ", 
G. Garitte ed., AB, LXXXIII (1965), pp. 233-290. 
* Aristakes Lastivertci, Patmufiwn Aristakeay vardapeti 
Lastivertcwoy [History of the vardapet Aristakes Lasti- 
vertci], (Venice, 1844). 

Aristakes Lastivertci, Patmufiwn Aristahisi Lasti- 
vertcwoy [History of Aristakes Lastivertci], K.E. Yuz- 
basyan ed. (Erevan, 1963). 

Trans. : Histoire d'Arminie ... par Arisdagues de Lasdi- 
verd, traduite pour la premiere fois ... par M. Evariste 
Prud'homme (Paris, 1864). 

*Ammiani Marcellini Rerum gestarum libri qui super- 
sunt, V. Gardthausen ed., 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1874-75). 
Ammianus Mareelliniis, The Surviving Books of the 
History [L], J.C. Rolfe, ed. and trans., 3 vols. (Cambridge, 
Mass.-London, 1950). 

*" Anania Sirakaci ", Miaban ed., Ararat (1906). 
Anania Sirakaci, Yalags harcman ew lucman [On Ques- 
tions and Answers], I. A. Orbeli ed. (Petrograd, 1918). 
Repr. in I.A. Orbeli, Izbrannye trudy [Selected Works], 
(Erevan, 1963). 

♦Anastas Vardapet, " Vasn vanorenic Hayoc or Yeru- 
salem [On the Armenian Monasteries in Jerusalem] ", 
in Alishan, Hayapatum, pp. 227-229. 
" Recueil des inscriptions grecques et latines du Pont 
et de l'Arm^nie, " Studia Pontica, III/l (1910). 

see, Primary History. 

" Collectio Sangermanensis ", AGO, II/v (1936), pp. 71-75. 
*Appiani Historia Romana, L. Mendelssohn ed., 2 vols. 
(Leipzig, 1879). 

Appian, " The Mithridatic Wars ", in Appian' s Roman 
History [L], H. White ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass.- 
London, 1928-1955), II, pp. 239-477. 
Appian, " The Syrian War ", in Appiari*s Roman History 



Aristotle, Politics 

[L], H. White ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass. -London, 
1928-1955), II, pp. 103-237. 

*Aristotelis Politico,, F. Susemihl ed., new ed. (Leipzig, 

Aristotle, Politics [L], H. Rackham ed. and trans. (Cam- 
bridge, Mass. -London, 1932). 

Arm. Geogr. I [Long Version] *Asyarhacoyc E dam [A Geography of the Vllth Century], 

K.P. Patkanian ed. (St. Petersburg, 1877). 
*Asxarhacoyc Movsesi Xorenacwoy [Geographic de Moise 
de Corene], A. Soukry ed. and trans. (Venice, 1881). 
[Adontz lists both editions without indicating the one 
he used. The latter has been used in this edition]. 

Arm. Geogr. II [Short version] *" As^arhacoyc stoy Movsisi Xorenacwoy [G^ographie 
attribute a Moyse de Khoren] ", in Saint-Martin, Me- 
moires, II, pp. 318-377. 

" A§xarhacoyc [Geography] ", in MX, pp. 585-616. 
**Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander [L], E. Hiff ed. and 
trans., 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1958-1961). 
*" Anonymi (Arriani ut fertur) Periplus Ponti Euxini ", 
GGM, I, pp. 402-423. 

Arriano, Periplo del Ponto Eusino, G. Marenghi ed. and 
trans. (Naples, s.d. [1958]). 

Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, Divan Hay 
Vimagrufyan [Corpus Inscriptionum Armenicaruiri], 
3 vols., in progress (Erevan, I960-). 
*Asolik, Patmutfimn Tiezerakal [Universal History], 
2nd ed. (St. Petersburg, 1885). 

Trans. : Part I — Histoire universelle par Etienne AsoghHg 
de Daron, E. Dulaurier trans. (Paris, 1883). 
Part II — Histoire universelle par Etienne Asolik de Tardn, 
F. Macler trans. (Paris, 1917). 

*Barhebraeus, Ghronicon Ecclesiasticum, J.B. Abbeloos 
and T.J. Lamy edd. and trans., 3 vols. (Louvain, 1872- 

*Barhebraeus, Chronicon Syriacum, P. Bedjan ed. (Paris, 

Trans. : The Chronography of Gregory AbuH Faraj ... 
Bar Hebraeus, E.A.W. Budge trans. (London, 1932). 
" Basilii notitia ", in Georg. Cypr., pp. 1-27. 
* *St. Basil of Caesarea, Collected Letters of Saint Basil 
[L], R.J. Deferrari ed., 4 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 

*Drevne-slavianskaia Kormcheia XIV titulov [Syntag- 
mata XIV titulorum sine scholiis secondum versionem 
palaeo-slovenicam], V.N. Benesevic ed., Vol. I, (St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1906-1907). 

BL *GirV TWoc, [The Booh of Letters], (Tiflis, 1901). 

Arrian, Anab. 
Arrian Periplus 


Barhebraeus, Chron. Eccl. 

Barhebraeus, Chron. Syr. 

Basil, Notitia 
Basil. Caes., Ep. 

Benesevic, Syntagmata 



Cass. Dio 


Chron. Pasch. 

Cod. Th. 

Const. Porph., DAI 

Const. Porph. de Themat. 


Diod. Sic. 

Dionysios, Perigesis 

Dwin Canons 

*Dionis Cassii Cocceiani Historia Romana, L. Dindorf 
ed., 5 vols. (Leipzig, 1863-1865). 

Cassius Dio, Roman History [L], E. Cary ed. and trans., 
9 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1954-1955). 
*Cedrenus, " Synopsis Historiarum ", I. Bekker ed., 
2 vols. CSHB (1838-1839). 

♦Charmoy, F.B. trans., CMref-Ndmeh ou Fastes de la 
nation Kourde par CMref-ou'ddine, Prince de Bidlis 
dans riidht d'Arzeroume, 2 vols, in 4° (St. Petersburg, 

*" Chronicon Paschale ", B.G. Niebuhr ed., CSHB (1832). 
**" Codex Justinianus ", P. Kriiger ed., in CJC, II, 
8th ed. (1906). 

**Codex Theodosianus, T. Mommsen ed. (Berlin, 1905). 
Trans. : The Theodosian Code, C. Pharr trans. (Princeton, 

*Constantine Porphyrogenitus, " De Administrando 
Imperio ", I. Bekker ed., CSHB (1829). 
Constant ine Porphyrogenitus, De Administrando Imperio, 
G. Moravcsik, R.H. Jenkins, et al. edd. and trans. 
(Budapest-London, 1949, 1962). 

*Constantine Porphyrogenitus, " De Thematibus '*. 
I. Bekker ed., CSHB (1840). 

Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Costantino Porfirogenito 
de Thematibus, A. Pertusi ed. (Vatican City, 1952). 
D'iakonov, I.M. ed. and trans. " Assyro-vavilonskie 
istochniki po istorii Urartu [Assyro-Babylonian Docu- 
ments on the History of Urartu] ", VDI (1951). 
D'iakonov, I.M. ed. and trans. Urartskie Pis'ma i Doku- 
menty [Urartian Letters and Documents'], (Moscow, 1963). 
see Garitte, Narratio. 

**Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History [L], F.R. Wal- 
ton ed. and trans., 12 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 

*" Dionisii Orbis Descriptio ", GGM, II (1861), pp. 103- 

*" Srboc vardapetacn Hayoc Movsesi ew Dawt'i harc- 
munk' Qnd erkbanak garap'arsn [Disputation of the 
Holy vardapets Movses and Dawit' with the Heretical 
Dyophysites] ", G. Srwanjteanc ed., Hnoc Noroc (1874). 
*" M. Xorenacwoy patmut'ean zamanaki masin [On 
the Date of the History of Xorenaci] ", F.C. Conybeare 
ed., HA, XVII (May, 1903), pp. 152-155. 
[Adontz cites both editions, but does not indicate the 
one he used. The latter has been used in this edition]. 
*" Kanonk' Dunay S. 2olovoyn [Canons of the Holy 
Council of Dwin] ", Ararat (1905). 



Ephr. Syr., Carm. Nisib. 

Euseb. HE 

Eustathius of Thessalonike 


Festus, Breviarium 
Pronto, Princ. Hist. 


Garitte, Agathange 

Garitte, Narratio 

Gelas. Cyz. 

Georg. Cypr. 

Georgian Chronicles 

GirV TWoc 
Greg. Naz., Oral. 

Hddjiabdd Inscription 
Hamzah al-Isfahdni 


♦Etise, Vasn Vardanay ew Hayoc Paterazmin [On Vardan 
and the Armenian War], (Venice, 1893). 
Elise, Vasn Vardanay ew Hayoc Paterazmin [On Vardan 
and the Armenian War], E. Ter Minasean ed. (Erevan, 

Trans. : in CHAM A, II (1869), pp. 183-251. 
*Ephraem Syrus, Ephraemi Carmina Nisibena, G. Bickell 
ed. (Leipzig, 1866). 

Ephraem Syrus, " Des Heiligen Ephraem des Syrers 
Carmina Nisibena ", E. Beck ed. and trans., CSCO, 
CCXLI (1963). 

**Eusebius of Caesarea, The Ecclesiastical History [L], 
K. Lake and J. Oulton edd. and trans., 2 vols. (Cam- 
bridge, Mass. -London, 1949-1953). 

*" Eustatii Commentarii ", GGM, II (1861), pp. 201-407. 
♦Evagrius, Ecclesiastical History, J. Bidez and L. Par- 
mentier edd. (London, 1898). 

*P'awstos Buzand [Faustus of Byzantium], P'awstosi 
Bwzandacwoy PatmutHwn Hayoc [P'awstos Buzand's 
History of Armenia], (Venice, 1889), 4th ed. (Venice, 1933). 
Trans. : in CHAMA, I (1867), pp. 209-310. 
*Festus, Breviarium, C. Wagener ed. (Leipzig, 1886). 
**Fronto, Correspondence [L], C.R. Haines ed. and 
trans., 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass. -London, 1919-1920). 
Movses Xorenaci, Istoriia Armenia [History of Armenia], 
N.O. Emin trans. (Moscow, 1858), Suppl. 
Garitte, G., Documents pour V etude du livre d" Agathange 
(Vatican City, 1946). 

Garitte, G., " La Narratio de rebus Armeniae ", CSCO, 
CXXXII, Subsidia 4 (1952). 

*Gelazius Cyzicenus, " Historia Concilii Nicaeni ", 
PG 9 LXXXV (1860), cols. 1191-1360. 
*Georgii Cyprii Descriptio orbis Eomani, H. Gelzer ed. 
(Leipzig, 1890). 

Georgius Cyprius, Le Synekdemos d'Hierokles et Vopuscule 
giographique de George de Chypre, E. Honigmann ed. 
(Brussels, 1939). 

*Istochnihi gruzinskikh letopisel. Tri khroniki [The 
Sources of the Georgian Annals. Three Chronicles], 
E. T'aqaiisvili ed. (Tiflis, 1900). 
see BL. 

♦Gregory Nazianzenus, " Oratio XLIII, In laudem 
Basilii magni ", PG, XXXVI (1863), cols. 493-606. 
See Nyberg, Hajjiabad. 

Hamzae Ispahanensis Annalium libri X, J.N.E. Gott- 
waldt ed. and trans., 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1848). 
Eng. trans. : The Annals of Hamzah al-Isfahdni, U.M. 
Daudpota trans. (Bombay, 1932). 




Herzfeld, Paikuli 


Homer, Iliad 

Ibn al-Fakih 
Ibn Khurdadhbih 

Ibn Serapion 

Isidore of Ckarax 

I tin. Ant. 

Jalabert, Commagene 


J oh. Ant. 

Joh. Eph., de beatis 

Joh. Eph., HE 

*Herodoti Historiarum libri IX, H.R. Dietsch and 

H. Kallenberd eds., 2nd ed. (Leipzig, 1899-1901). 

Herodotus, Histories [L], A.G. Godley ed. and trans., 

4 vols. (Cambridge, Mass. -London, 1960). 

Herzfeld, E., Paikuli. Monuments and Inscriptions of 

the Early History of the Sasanian Empire, 2 vols. (Berlin, 


*Hieroclis Synecdemus et Notitiae Graecae Episcopatum 

accedunt Nili Doxopatrii Notitia Pairiarchatuum et 

Locorum Nomina Immutata, G. Parthay ed. (Berlin, 


Hierokles, Le Synehdemos d'Hierokles et Vopuscule geo- 

graphique de Georges de Chypre, E. Honigmann ed. 

(Brussels, 1939). 

*Homeri Ilias, G. Dindorf ed. 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1899). 

Homer, The Iliad [L], A.T. Murray ed. and trans., 

2 vols. (New York-London, 1925). 

*Ibn al-Fakih, " Kitab al-buldan ", EGA, V (1885). 

*Ibn Khurdadhbih, " Liber viarum et regnorum ", 

EGA, VI (1889). 

*Ibn Serapion, " Description of Mesopotamia and 

Baghdad written about the Year 900 A.D. by Ibn 

Serapion ", G. le Strange, ed. and trans., J MAS, XLVII, 

n.s. XXVII (1895), pp. 1-76, 255-316. 

*" Isidori Characeni Mansiones Parthicae ", GGM, I 

(1855), pp. 244-256. 

Isidore of Charax, The Parthian Stations, W.H. Schoff 

ed. and trans. (Philadelphia, 1914). 

*" Itinerarium provinciarum omnium Imper. Antonini 

Augusti, " Recueil des itineraires anciens, de Fortia 

d'Urban ed. (Paris, 1845), pp. 1-148. 

" Das Itinerarium Antonini ", Itineraria Romana, K. 

Miller ed. (Stuttgart, 1916), pp. liv-lxvii. 

Jalabert, L. and Mouterde, R. edd. Inscriptions grecques 

et latines de la Syrie I : Commagene et Cyrrhestique (Paris, 


" Jamblichus ", as cited in Photius, BibliotMque, R. Henri 

ed. and trans. (Paris, 1959), II, pp. 34-48. 

* Johannes Antiochenus, " Fragmenta ", FGH, IV. 
♦Johannes Ephesinus, Johannis Episcopi Ephesi Syri 
Monophy sitae Commentaria de Beatis Orientalibus et 
Historiae Ecclesiasticae Fragmenta, W.J. van Douwen 
and J.P.N. Land trans. (Amsterdam, 1889). 

Eng. trans. : Joannes of Ephesus, " Lives of the Eastern 
Saints ", E. W. Brooks trans., PO XVII, 1 (1923) ; XVIII, 
4 (1924); XIX, 2(1925). 

* Johannes Ephesinus, Die Kirchengeschichte des Johannes 



J oh. Erznk. 

J oh. Kat\ 

Joh. Lyd., de mag. 
J oh. Mam. 

Josephus, Ant. 
Josephus, Bell. Jud. 
Jos. Styl. 



Karst, Sempadscher Kodex 

von Ephesus, aus dem Syrischen iibersetzt u.s.w. von 
J.M. Schonfelder (Munich, 1862). 

Johannes Ephesinus, " Iohannis Ephesini Historiae 
ecclesiasticae pars tertia ", E.W. Brooks ed. and trans., 
CSCO, CVI (1936, repr. 1964). 

Eng. trans. : The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History 
of John Bishop of Ephesus. Now first translated from 
the Original Syriac by R. Payne Smith (Oxford, 1860). 
♦Yovhannes Erznkaci [John of Erznkay], Yovhannu 
Erznkacwoy Nerboleank* i Surb Grigori Lusaworify 
[Yovhannes Erznkaci, Panegyric of St. Gregory the Illu- 
minator'], Sop'erk', V (Venice, 1853). 
*Yovhannes Kat'olikos [John the Kat'olikos], Pat- 
mufium [History], (Moscow, 1853). 

Yovhannes Kat'olikos, Patmut'iwn [History], (Jerusalem, 

Trans. : [notoriously inadequate] Histoire d^Armenie 
par le patriarche Jean VI dit Jean Catholicos, par M.J. 
Saint-Martin, ouvrage posthume (Paris, 1841). 
Johannes Lydus, Be magistratibus, 0. Seeck ed. (Berlin, 

Johannes Lydus, De magistratibus, populi Romani, 
R. Wunsch ed. (Leipzig, 1903). 

* Yovhannes Mamikonean [John Mamikonean] Yovhannu 
Mamikoneni episkoposi PatmutHwn Taronoy [History 
of Taron by Bishop Yovhannes Mamikonean], 2nd ed. 
(Venice, 1889). 

Trans. : in GHAMA, I (1867), pp. 361-382. 

* *F1. Josephus, Jewish Antiquities [L], R.Marcus and 
L.H. Feldman edd. and trans. 9 vols. (Cambridge, 
Mass-London, 1926-1965). 

**F1. Josephus, The Jewish War [L], H. St. John Thacke- 
ray ed. and trans., 9 vols. (Cambridge, Mass. -London, 

*Josua Stylites, The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite 
Composed in Syriac A.D. 507, W. Wright ed. and trans. 
(Cambridge, 1882). 

Josua Stylites, La chronique de Josue le stylite, ecrite 
vers Van 515, Paulin-Martin trans. (Leipzig, 1876). 
*Juliani epitome latina novellarum Justiniani, G. Haenel 
ed. (Leipzig, 1873). 

* M . luniani Iustini Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum 
Pompei Trogi, F. Ruehl ed. (Leipzig, 1886). 
Justin, Epitoma historiarum Philippicarum, ed. 2 vols. 
(Paris, 1936). 

*Karst, J. ed., Sempadscher Kodex aus dem 13. Jahr- 
hundert oder mittelarmenisches Bechtsbuch, 2 vols. (Stras- 
burg, 1905). 



Kent, Old Persian 
Kir. Ganj. 


Labbe, Concilia 
Lact. de mort. 
Laterculus Polemii Silvii 
Laterculus Veronensis 
Law of the XII Tables 


Lex Salica 
Life of St. Gregory 
Life of St. Mesrop 
Life of St. Nerses 
Life of St. Theodore 


Melikishvili, F.A. 

Kent, R.G., Old Persian, grammar-texts-lexicon, 2nd 
rev. ed. (New Haven, 1953). 

*Kirakos Ganjakeci, Hamafot PatmuViwn [Brief History], 
(Venice, 1865). 

Kirakos Ganjakeci, PatmuViwn Hayoc [History of Ar- 
menia], K.A. Melik'-Ohanjanyan ed. (Erevan, 1961). 
Trans. : " Histoire d'Armenie par le vartabied Kirakos 
de Gantzac ", Deux historiens armeniens, M.F. Brosset 
trans. (St. Petersburg, 1870). 

* *Koriwn, Vatic 1 S. Mastoci [Biographie des III. Mastop], 
N. Akinian ed. (Vienna, 1952). 

Trans. : in CHAM A, II (1869), pp. 9-16. 

* Labbe, Ph. and Couart edd., Sacrosancta Concilia, 
15 vols. (Paris, 1671-1672). . 

* *Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum, J. Moreau 
ed. and trans., 2 vols. (Paris, s.d. [1954]). 

**" Laterculus Polemii Silui siue Schonhouianus ", 

Seeck, Not. dig., pp. 254-260. 

**" Laterculus Ueronensis ", Seeck, Not. dig., pp. 247- 


**"The Twelve Tables, or the Law of the Twelve 

Tables ", Remains of Old Latin [L], E.H. Warmington 

ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass. -London, 1961), III, 

pp. 424-515. 

*Lewond, PatmuViwn Lewondeay meci vardapeti Hayoc 

[History of Lewond, the Great Vardapet of Armenia], 

2nd ed. (St. Petersburg, 1887). 

Trans. : Ghevond, Histoire des guerres et des conquetes 

des Arabes en Armenie ..., G. Chahnazarian trans. (Paris, 


**Lex Salica, K. A. Eckhardt ed. (Weimar, 1953). 

see " Agat'angelos ", Vg. 

see Koriwn. 

see Nerses 

*"Zhitie Sv. Theodora [Life of St. Theodore] ", Kh. 

Loparev ed. ZKO, I (1904). 

*Lazar P'arpeci, PatmuViwn Hayoc [History of Armenia], 

(Tiflis, 1904). 

Lazar P'arpeci, PatmuViwn Hayoc [History of Armenia], 

4th ed. (Venice, 1933). 

Trans. : in CHAMA, II (1869), pp. 259-369. 

*Iohannis Malalae Chronographia, L. Dindorf ed., CSHB 


* *Mas'udi, Les Prairies a" or, Ch. Pellat ed. and trans., 
2 vols, in progress (Paris, 1962 -). 

Urartskie klinoobraznye nadpisi [Urartian Cuneiform 
Inscriptions (Moscow 1960). 



Men. ProL 

Mich. Syr. 
Military List 

Mov. Dasx- 
Mov. Kalank. 



MxiVwr Gos 

Nar ratio de rebus Armeniae 

Noldeke, Tabari 

*Menander Protector, " Ex historia Menandri Protec- 

toris excerpta de legationibus barbarorum ad Romanos ", 

I. Bekker and B.G. Niehbur edd., GSHB (1829). 

♦Menander Protector, Excerpta de legationibus, C. de 

Boor ed., 2 vols. (Berlin, 1905). 

♦Michael Syrus, Ghronique de Michel le Syrien patriarche 

jacobite d'Antioche (1166-1199), J.B. Chabot ed. and 

trans. (Paris 1899-1904). 

Storagrutfiwn kafulike Ejmiacni ew hing gawafacn 

Araratay [Description of the Kafolikosate of Ejmiacin 

and of the Five Provinces of Ararat], H. Sah^atunean ed., 

2 vols. (Ejmiacin, 1842), II, pp. 59. 

see Mov. Kalank. 

♦Movses Kalankatwaci, Movsesi Kalankatwacwoy Pat- 

mufivm Alwanic asyarhi {History of Albania by Movses 

Kalankatwaci], J. Emin ed. (Moscow, 1860). 

Trans. : Dowsett, Mov. Dasx* 

♦Matt'eos Urhaeci [Matthew of Edessa], MatVeosi 

Ufhayecwoy fiamanakagruVium [Chronicle of MatCeos 

Ufhayeci], (Jerusalem, 1869). 

Trans. : Bibliotheque historique armenienne, I, I.E. Du- 

laurier trans. (Paris, 1858). 

♦Movses Zorenaci [Movses of Khoren], 

Hayoc [History of Armenia], (Tiflism 1881). 

Movses Xorenaci, " Patmut'iwn Hayoc 

Armenia] ", Srboy horn meroy Movsesi 

Matenagrut'iumF [Works of our Holy Father Movses 

Xorenaci, 2nd ed. (Venice, 1865), pp. 1-277. 

Trans. : *Istoriia Armenii [History of Armenia], N.O. 

Emin trans. (Moscow, 1858). 

In GHAMA, II (1869), pp. 53-175. Et al. 

♦Mxit'ar Gos, MyiVaray Gosi Datastanagirk'' Hayoc 

[The Armenian Code of Mxit'ar Gos], V. Bastamean ed. 

(Valarsapat, 1880). 

Trans. : Armianskii Sudebnik Mkhitara Gosha [The 

Armenian Code of Mkhitar Gosh], A.A. Papovian trans. 

(Erevan, 1954). 

see Garitte, Narratio. 

*Yalags zarmic Srboyn Grigori Hayoc Lusawor$i ew 

patmutfiwn Srboyn Nersisi Hayoc hayrapeti [On the 

Genealogy of St. Gregory Illuminator of Armenia and 

History of St. Nerses Patriarch of the Armenians, Sop'erk', 

VI (Venice, 1853). 

Trans. : in GHAMA, II (1869), pp. 21-44. 

♦Noldeke, Th. ed. and trans., Geschichte der Perser und 

Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden aus der arabischen Ghronik 

des Tabari (Leyden, 1879). 


[History of 



Not. dig. 


Nova Tactica 
Nyberg, Hajjiabad 

Petr. Patric. 


Plut., Crassus 

Plut., Lucullus 

Plut., Pompey 

Poly bins 

Pomp. Trog. 
Primary History 


Proc. A ed. 

Proc. Ante. 

Proc. Goth. 

Proc. Pers. 

*Notitia dignitatum, E. Booking ed., 5 vols. (Bonn, 

*Notitia dignitatum accedunt Notitia urbis Constantino- 
politanae et Laterculi prouinciarum, O. Seeck ed. (Berlin, 

[Adontz lists both editions without indicating the one 
he used. The latter was used in this edition]. 
*Novellae quae vocantur sive constitutiones quae extra 
codicem supersunt, K.E. Zachariae von Lingenthal ed., 
2 vols. (Leipzig, 1881). 

" Novellae ", R. Sohoell and W. Kroll edd., CJC, III, 
6th ed. (1912). 

*" Nova Tactica ", in Georg. Cypr., pp. 57-83. 
Nyberg, H. S., " Hajjiabad -Inskriften ", 0st og Vest 
(Copenhagen, 1945). 

♦Petrus Patricius, " Ex historia Petri Patricii et Magistri 
excerpta de legationibus gentium ad Romanos ", I. Bek- 
ker and B.G. Niehbuhr edd., CSHB (1829). 
*C. Plinii Secundi Naturalis historiae libri XXXVII y 
C. Mayhoff ed., 5 vols. (Leipzig, 1870-1880). 
Pliny, The Natural History [L], H. Rackam ed. and 
trans., 10 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1938-1965). 
**Plutarch, "Crassus", Lives [L], B. Perrin ed. and 
trans. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1958), III, pp. 314-423. 
* *Plutarch, " Lucullus ", Lives [L], B. Perrin ed. and 
trans. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1959), II, pp. 496-611. 
**Plutarch, " Pompey ", Lives [L], B. Perrin ed. and 
trans. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1955), V, pp. 115-327. 
**Polybius, The Histories [L], W.R. Paton ed. and 
trans., 6 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1954). 
see Justin. 

" Primary History of Armenia ", in Sebeos, pp. 1 sqq. 
Trans. : " Le Pseudo-Agathange ", CHAMA, I (1867), 
pp. 195-200. 

*" Procopius ", G. Dindorf ed., CSHB (1833-1838). 
*Trans. : Istoriia VandaVskol voiny [History of the 
Vandalic War y S. Destunis trans. (St. Petersburg, 1891). 
Procopius, " On Buildings ", Works [L], H.B. Dewing 
and G. Downey edd. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass.- 
London, 1940), VII. 

Procopius, " The Anecdota or Secret History ", Works [L], 
H.B. Dewing ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 
1954), VI. 

Procopius, " The Gothic War ", Works [L], H.B. Dewing 
ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1919-1928), 

Procopius, " The Persian War ", Works, [L], H.B. Dewing 
ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1914), I. 



Pseudo Movses Xorenaci 


Sahah Canons 

Sam. Ani 



Proc. Vand. Procopius, " The Vandalic War ", Works [L], H.B. De- 

wing ed. and trans. (Cambridge, Mass. -London, 1916), II. 
Nerses, pp. 32^39. 
see Arm. Geogr. 

* Ptolemy, Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia, C. Miiller ed. 
(Paris, 1901). 

" Res Gestae Divi Saporis ", A. Maricq ed. and trans. 
S, XXXV (1958), pp. 295-360. 

* *" Kanonk' Srboyn Sahakay Hayoc Hayrapeti [Canons 
of St. Sahak Patriarch of the Armenians] ", Kanonagirk* 
Hayoc [Armenian Book of Canons'], V. Hakobyan ed. 
(Erevan, 1964), I, pp. 363-421. 

* Samuel Aneci, Samueli Fah. Anecwoy Hawak'munk 1 i 
groc patmagrac [Compilation of Historical Writings by 
the Priest Samuel of Ani], (Valarsapat, 1893). 
Trans. : in CHA, II (1876), pp. 340-483. 
*Sebeos, Sebeosi episkoposi i Herakln [Bishop Sebeos 
on Heraclius], K. Patkanian ed. (St. Petersburg, 1879). 
Trans. : Histoire d' 'Heraclius par Veveque Sebeos, F. Macler 
trans. (Paris, 1904). 

**Scriptores Historiae Augustae [L], D. Magie ed. and 
trans., 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1953-1954). 
*Simeon Aparaneci, Vipasanufiwn PaMawuneac ew 
Mamikoneac [Rhapsody on the Pahlawunis and the 
Mamikoneans], (Ejmiacin, 1870). 
*Karst, Sempadscher Kodex, I (1905). 

Smbat Sparapet, Datastanagirtf [Code], A.G. Galstyan 
ed. and trans. (Erevan, 1958). 
Sprengling, Third Century Iran Sprengliug, M., Third Century Iran. Sapor and Kartir 
(Chicago, 1953). 

*Step'annos Imastaser [the Philosopher], " Vasn anapa- 
kanut'ean marmnoy [On the Incorruptibility of the 
Flesh] ", Miaban ed., Ararat (1902). 

* *Stephanus Byzantinus, Ethnika, A. Meineke ed. (Ber- 
lin, 1849). Repr. (Graz, 1958). 

*Step'annos Orbelean, Patmufium tann Sisakan {History 
of the House of Sisakan], (Moscow, s.d.). 

Step'annos Orbelean, PatmuVium nahangin Sisakan 
[History of the Province of Sisakan], K. Chahnazarian ed., 
2 vols. (Paris, 1859). 

Trans. : Histoire de la Siounie, M.F. Brosset trans., 
2 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1864-1866). 

Strabo *Strabonis Geographica, A. Meineke ed., 3 vols. (Leipzig, 


Strabo, The Geography [L], H.L. Jones ed. and trans., 
7 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1960-1961). 

Suidas **Suidas, Lexicon, G. Bernhardy ed. (Halle, 1853). 

Sim. Aparan. 

Smbat Sparapet, Code 

Step'annos, Incorruptibility 

Steph. Byz. 
Steph. Orb. 



Sym. Mag. 
Syn. Or. 
Syr. -r dm. Recht 
Tab. Peut. 


Tac. Ann. 

Tac. Germ. 

Tac. Hist. 

Ter Israel, Synaxary 

Theod., HE 

Theoph. Conf. 

Theoph. Cont. 
Theoph. Sim. 

Tov. Arc. 

Trever, Armenia 


Vardan, Geography 

♦Symeon Magister ac Logothetes, " Historia ", I. Bekker 
ed., CSHB (1838). 

*Synodicon Orientate ou recueil des synodes nestoriens, 
J.B. Chabot ed. and trans., (Paris, 1902). 
*Syrisch-romisches Eechtsbuch aus dem V. Jahrhundert, 
K. Brims and E. Sachau edd, (Leipzig, 1880). 
*" Tabula Peutingeriana ", Recueil des itineraires anciens, 
de Fortia d'Urban ed., (Paris, 1845), pp. 197-312. 
" Tabula Peutingeriana ", Itineraria Romana, K. Miller 
ed. (Stuttgart, 1916). 

*Comelii Taciti libri qui super sunt, C. Halm ed., 2 vols. 
(Leipzig, 1885-1886). 

Tacitus, The Annals of Tacitus [L], J. Jackson ed. and 
trans., 3 vols. (Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1931). 
Tacitus, " De Germania ", Dialogues [L], W. Peterson 
ed. and trans. (London-New York, 1925). 
Tacitus, The Histories [L], C.H. Moore ed. and trans. 
(Cambridge, Mass.-London, 1956). 

**"Le Synaxaire armenien de Ter Israel", G. Bayan 
ed. and trans., PO, V-XXI (1909-1930). 
Theodoret of Cyr, Theodoret Kirchengeschichte, L. Par- 
mentier and F. Scheidweiler edd., 2nd ed. (Berlin, 1954). 
*Theophanes Confessor, " Chronographia ", I. Bekker 
ed., CSHB (1838). 

Theophanes Confessor, Chronographia, C. de Boor ed., 
2 vols. (Leipzig, 1883-1885). 

♦Theophanes Continuatus, ** Chronographia ", I. Bekker 
ed., CSHB (1838). 

♦Theophylakt Simokatta, " Historiarum libri VIII '\ 
B.G. Niehbuhr ed., CSHB (1834). 

Theophylakt Simokatta, Historiae, C. de Boor ed. 
(Leipzig, 1887). 

♦T*ovma Arcruni, T*ovmasi vardapeti Arcrunwoy Patmuf~ 
iwn tann Arcruneac [History of the Arcruni House by the 
Vardapet T'ovma Arcruni], (St. Petersburg, 1887). 
Trans. : in CHA, I (1874), pp. 4-263. 
Trever, K.V., Ocherki po istorii huVtury drevnei Armenii 
[Studies in the History of Ancient Armenian Culture], 
(Moscow, 1953). 

♦"Octanes Episkopos [Urhaeci], Patmufiwn Hayoc 
[History of Armenia], (Valarsapat, 1871). 
Trans. : " Histoire en trois parties, " Deux historiens 
armeniens (St. Petersburg, 1871). 
see " Agat'angelos ", Va. 

♦Vardan, " Meknut'iwn cnndoc. As^arhagrut'iwn [Geo- 
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U USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, Air Photographic and 

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